DEVELOPMENT OF A RESIDENT ATTITUDE SCALE TOWARD TOURISM IN LANGKAWI: COMPARING EASTERN AND WESTERN CONTEXTS

NURHAZANI MOHD. SHARIFF

Abstract


The purpose of this paper is to review and compare the development of an attitudinal scale for measuring residents’ attitudes toward tourism in the context of the Eastern and Western community.
To date, two standardized scales which focused on the Western community were developed by Lankford and Howard (1994) and Ap and Crompton (1998). None, however, has been developed in the context of the Eastern community. Since both the communities have different culture and beliefs toward certain aspects, the development of the scale is important in order to understand resident attitudes. Thus, a study was undertaken in Langkawi Island, Malaysia for the purpose of
developing the scale and the results were compared with the existing scale. Several similarities and differences of items are found in the scale developed for both the Eastern and Western contexts.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Antil, J.H. and Bennet, P.D. (1979) Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Socially

Responsible Consumption Behaviour, In The Conserver Society (ed.), Henion, K.E.

and Kinnear, T.C., Chicago: American Marketing Association: 51-68.

Ap, J. (1990) Residents’ Perceptions Research on the Social Impacts of Tourism, Annals of

Tourism Research 17: 610-616.

Ap, J. and Cromton, J.L. (1998) Developing and Testing a Tourism Impact Scale, Journal of

Travel Research 37: 120-130.

Boissevian, J. and Inglott, P. (1979) Tourism in Malta, In De Kadt, E. Tourism: Passport to

Development? Oxford University Press: Oxford, 265-84.

Brewer, J. (1978) Tourism Business and Ethnic Categories in a Mexican Town, In Smith, V. Tourism

and Behaviour, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg: VA.

Churchill, G.A. (1979) A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs,

Journal of Marketing Research 26(2): 64-73.

DeVellis, R.F. (1991) Scale Development: Theory and Application, Applied Social Research

Methods Series Vol.26, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Din, K.H. (1993) Normative and Positive Aspects of Muslim Travel Behaviour, In Development

and the Muslims (eds.) Din, K.H., Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, pp. 209-226.

Hofstede, G. (1980) Culture’s Consequences, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills: CA.

Hofstede, G. (1991) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, McGraw-Hill: London.

Kayat, K. (2000) Power through Tourism: A Blessing on Mahsuri’s Eight Generation in

Langkawi? Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, USA: Michigan State University.

Langkawi Development Authority (1999) Langkawi Residential Socioeconomic Study,

Langkawi; LADA.

Lankford, S.V. (1994) Attitudes and Perceptions toward Tourism and Rural Regional Development,

Journal of Travel Research (Winter): 35-48.

Lankford, S.V. and Howard, D.R. (1994) Developing a Tourism Impact Scale, Annals of Tourism

Research 21(1): 121-139.

Mohd Shariff, N., Hashim, F. and Abdul Rahman, N. (2000) “Sikap Penduduk Tempatan terhadap

Pembangunan Pelancongan di Negeri Kedah”, Utara Management Review 1(2): 39-56.

Mohd Shariff, N. (2002) Developing a Scale to Measure Residents Attitudes toward Impacts

of Tourism in Langkawi, Malaysia, Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Glasgow: University

of Strathclyde.

Mohd. Shariff, N. and Tahir, S. (2003) Residents’ Attitudes toward Impacts of Tourism: A Case Study of

Langkawi, Malaysia, Malaysian Management Journal 7(2): 13-24.

Ngah, K. (1991) Development Impact Study of Langkawi, Research for Urban Development

Authority.

Othman, L.I. (1998) Entrepreneurial Opportunities for Small and Medium Scale Companies Related

to Tourism Development: The Case of Langkawi, Malaysia, Unpublished Ph.D.

Dissertation, Glasgow: University of Starthclyde.

Rollins, R. (1997) Validation of the TIAS as a Tourism Tool, Annals of Tourism Research

(3): 740-742.

Scheneider, I.E., Lankford, S.V. and Oguchi, T. (1997) The CrossCultural Equivalence of the

TIAS: Summary Results, Annals of Tourism Research 24 (4): 994-997.

Tinsley, H.O. and Tinsley, D. (1987) Uses of Factor Analysis in Counseling Psychology Research, Journal

of Counseling Psychology 34: 414-24.

Zaichowsky, J. (1985) Measuring the Involvement Construct, Journal of Consumer Behaviour

: 341-352.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.