Aryzana Sunkar


The triple bottom line of economy, ecology and socio-cultural benefits is the means to sustainable tourism, suggesting that the success of a tourism company is not only defined by the monetary gains but also by the impacts that the company's activities have on environment and society as a whole. Recognizing the sustainability of its operation rests on its ability to work harmoniously in its environmental and social settings, the Amanwana Resort management has particularly focus on direct and indirect contributions to natural environment conservation and community empowerment. As an ecotourism-based resort located in Moyo Island where the greater terrestrial part is a Hunting Park and the surrounding body of water is a Marine Recreational Park which formed the major tourism attractions, Amanwana’s planning and development of the attractions were concentrated on the need to co-exist with the fragile natural
environment. Amanwana’s pro-environment commitment was demonstrated by
minimum alteration of local surroundings, environmental-friendly structures, the Moyo Conservation Fund to preserve forest and coral reefs habitats, nature trail walks, and employment of local villagers to protect nature from illegal logging, illegal fishing and destruction. The company’s pro-social commitment was indicated by the facilities and infrastructural development in the nearby village and local employment. As much as 85-95% of the total 120 Amanwana staffs were Indonesian, and of these 35% were locals. Residents also enjoyed the additional economic benefits of tourists staying at Amanwana Resort. Almost 20 years after its establishment, no natural disasters, ecological disturbance and social conflicts related to Amanwana Resort have been recorded.

Full Text:



Ayala, H. (1996). resort ecotourism: a paradigm for the 21stcentury. Cornell Hotel and

Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 37, 46-53.

Berenguer, J., Corraliza, J.A., & Martin, R. (2005). Rural-urban differences in

environmental concern, attitudes, and actions. European Journal of Psychological

Assessment, 21(2),128–138.

Biggs, D., Ban, N. C., & Hall, C. M. (2012). Lifestyle values, resilience, and nature based

tourism’s contribution to conservation on Australia's Great Barrier Reef.

Environmental Conservation, 1-10.

Borst, H. C., Miedema, H. M. E., Vries, S. I., Grahama, J. M. A., & Dongena, J. E. F.

(2008). Relationships between street characteristics and perceived attractiveness

for walking reported by elderly people. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28,


Budiono, G.L. 2004. Kepuasan wisatawan terhadap kualitas pelayanan obyek wisata

Gunung Bromo. Jurnal Model Manajemen, 2 (1), 60-64.

Butler, J. (2008). The compelling “hard case’’ for “green” hotel development. Cornell

hospitality quarterly, 49(3), 234-244.

Chan, K.L.J., and Baum, T. (2007). Motivation factors of ecotourists in ecolodge

accommodation: the push and pull factors. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism

Research, 12(4), 349-364.

Cheng, T., Wu, H.C., & Huang, L. (2012). The Influence of place attachment on the

relationship between destination attractiveness and environmentally responsible

behaviour for island tourism in Penghu, Taiwan. Journal of Sustainable Tourism,


Ciuti, S., Northrup, J.M., Muhly, T.B., Simi, S., Musiani, M., Pitt, J.A., and Boyce, M.S.

(2012). Effects of humans on behaviour of wildlife exceed those of natural

predators in a landscape of fear. PLoS ONE, 7(11).


Clayton, S., & Opotow, S. (eds.). (2003). Identity and the natural environment: The

psychological significance of nature. Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Erdem, B., & Tetik, N. (2013). A new trend in the hotel industry: ecolodges. Studia

UBB Geographia, LVIII, 1, 85-92.

Fauziah, S. (2010). Analisis preferensi wisatawan terhadap destinasi ekowisata kepulauan

seribu dengan pendekatan analisis konjoin (Studi kasus Pulau

Pramuka)(Unpublished undergraduate thesis). University of Bina Nusantara,

Jakarta, Indonesia.

Hardy, C., & Van Vugt, M. (2006). Nice guys finish first: The competitive altruism

hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1402-1413.

Hou, J. S., Lin, C. H., & Morais, D. B. (2005). Antecedents of attachment to a cultural

tourism destination: The case of Hakka and Non-Hakka Taiwanese visitors to PeiPu,

Taiwan.Journal of Travel Research, 44(2), 221–233.

[IUCN] International Union for Conservation of Nature. (2012). Siting and design of

hotels and resorts: Principles and case studies for biodiversity conservation.

Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Jamaludin, M., & Yusof, Z.B. (2013). Best practice of Green Island Resorts. Procedia –

Social and Behavioural Sciences, 105, 20-29.

Jang, S., & Wu, C.E. (2006). Seniors’ travel motivations and the influential factors: an

examination of Taiwanese seniors. Tourism Management , 27, 306–316.

Kavanagh, L.J. (2002). Water management and sustainability at Queensland tourist

resorts. Queensland: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.

Kusrini, M.D., Wardiatno, Y., Yulianda, F. (2013). Aquatic ecosystem development for

ecotourism destinations. In F. Teguh, & R. Avenzora (Eds.), Ecotourism and

sustainable tourism development in Indonesia:Potentials, lessons and bestpractices

(pp.139-161). Bogor: Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy.

Lee, C. C. (2001). Predicting tourist attachment to destinations. Annals of Tourism

Research, 28(1), 229–232.

Lee, C. F., Huang, H. I., & Yeh, H. R. (2010). Developing an evaluation model for

destination attractiveness: Sustainable forest recreation tourism in Taiwan. Journal

of Sustainable Tourism, 18(6), 811–828.

Li, J.X., Liu, L., & Liu, D. (2012). The dimensions of place attachment and its effect on

environmental responsible behaviour. Advanced Materials Research 524-527,


LNTA-ADB. (2005). Designing and operating an ecolodge in the Lao PDR. Lao PDR:

Mekong Tourism Development Project: Lao National Tourism AdministrationAsian

Development Bank.

Makes, D., & Rahmafitria, F. (2013). Eco-resort and green hotel in Indonesia: An

application of sustainable tourism development. In Teguh,F. & Avenzora, R.

(Eds). Ecotourism and sustainable tourism development (pp. 476-506). Bogor : Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy.

McKenzie-Mohr, D. (2000). Fostering sustainable behavior through community-based

social marketing. American Psychologist 55, 5, 531-537.

Milinski, M., Semmann, D., Krambeck, H., & Marotzke, J. (2006). Stabilizing the Earth’s

climate is not a losing game: Supporting evidence from public goods experiments.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 3994-3998

Nair, V. (2005). Ecotourism best practice initiatives in a resort: A Ccase study in

Summerset at Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia. In K. Chon (Ed.), One Earth one

family: Travel & tourism – serving a higher purpose: Procceedings of 3rd Global

Summit on Peace Through Tourism-Education Forum, Pattaya, 2-5 October, 2005

(pp. 130-140). Pattaya: Institute for Peace through Tourism.

Pretty, J., & Smith, D. (2003). Social capital in biodiversity conservation and

management. Conservation Biology, 18(3), 631-638.

Stern, P.C. (2000). Psychology and the science of human-environment interactions.

American Psychologist 55, 5, 523-530.

Sugiarti R. (2000). Ekowisata, pemberdayaan masyarakat, dan pelestarian lingkungan. In

Panitia Konservasi Biodiversitas Flora dan Fauna di Gunung Lawu, Jurusan

Biologi FMIPA. Konservasi Biodiversitas untuk Perlindungan dan Penyelamatan

Plasma Nutfah di Pulau Jawa: Proceeding of Semiloka Nasional, Surakarta 17-20

July, 2000. Surakarta: Universitas Sebelas Maret.

Sunkar, A., Rachmawati, E., & Cereno, R. (2013). Ecotourism Ddevelopment in Brunei

Darussalam, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Singapore and Philippines. In S.

Kim, M. Kang, & D. Sukmajaya (Eds.), Opportunities and challenges of

ecotourism in ASEAN countries ( pp. 52-87). Korea: Jungmin Publishing Co.

Swanson, K.K., & Horridge, P.E. (2006). Travel motivations as souvenir purchase

indicators. Tourism Management, 27, 671–683.

Težak, A., Šergo, Z., & Poropat, A. (2012). Influence of environmental protection on

selecting tourism destination. In New Trends in Tourism and Hospitality

Management: Proceedings of Tourism & Hospitality Industry - 21st bienniel

international congress, (pp. 177-183).

Van der Merwe, P., & Saayman, M. (2008). Travel motivations of tourists visiting

Kruger National Park. African Protected Area Conservation and Science, 50 (1),


Van Vugt, M. (2009). Averting the tragedy of the common: Using social psychological

science to protect the environment. Current Directions in Psychological Science,

, 169-173.

Victor, T. C. (1989). Marketing implications for attractions. Tourism Management, 10

(3), 229–232.

Weaver, D., & Lawton, L. (2001). Attitudes and behaviour of ecolodge patrons in

Lamington National Park. Queensland: CRC for Sustainable Tourism

[WWF] World Wide Fund-Indonesia. (2009). Prinsip dan kriteria ekowisata berbasis

masyarakat. kerjasama direktorat produk pariwisata, Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal

Pengembangan Destinasi Pariwisata, Departemen Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata dan WWF-Indonesia.

Yusof, Z.B., & Jamalusin, M. (2013). Green approaches of Malaysian green hotels and

resorts. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, 85, 42-431.

Zuhriana, D, Alikodra, H.S., Adiwibowo, S., & Hartrisari H. (2012). Peningkatan

peluang kerja bagi masyarakat lokal melalui pengembangan ekowisata di Taman

Nasional Gunung Ciremai. Media Konservasi, 18 (1), 28-39.

Web Source

Aman Resorts. (2014, August 21). Amanwana. Retrieved From the Aman Resorts



  • There are currently no refbacks.