Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer


Vol. 9 No. 1 (2010)


December 6, 2016


This study examined vocational teachers' and administrators' perception of ASEAN cooperation in tourism training and identify factors affecting their perception. A documentary and questionnaire were employed to collect data. At least 79 percent of respondents agreed that ASEAN information is disseminated widely, clearly, continuously and it is easy to recognize ASEAN publications among others. However, information about the regional cooperation in tourism training in particular was not considered to be adequate. Administrators and teachers in general had positive attitudes toward ASEAN cooperation. Yet while respondents did not appreciate the impact of differences in national culture and school formal organization procedures on ASEAN cooperation, the results of this research showed that nationality and school status do influence their perception, and thus, guide their behavior in cooperation. The data also revealed a fact that schools value resources that ensure quality of training provision rather than existing relations or financial resources of a potential partner.


  1. Barnett, K. and Ryan, R. (2005). Vocational education and training in Australian schools: Issues for practitioners, International Education Journal, ERC2004 Special Issue, 2005, 5(5), 89-104. ISSN 1443-1475 2005 Shannon Research Press.
  2. Beerkens H.J.J.G., (2004). Global Opportunities and Institutional Embeddedness: Higher Education Consortia inEurope and South East Asia, URL
  3. Catri D.B., (1998), Vocational Education's Image for the 21st Century, Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education 1998, URL
  4. Chappell C. and Johnston R., (2003), Changing work: Changing roles for vocational education and training teachers and trainers, URL
  5. Harknen, Cort P.,A. and Volmari K. (2004), PROFF - Professionalisation of VET teachers for the future, URL
  6. Darling-Hammond L., (1997), Doing What Matters Most: Investing in Quality Teaching: Prepared for the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, National Commission on Teaching and America's
  7. Future, URL
  8. Harris R et al. (2001) The changing role of staff development for teachers and trainers in VET,Australian National Training Authority, NCVER. URL
  9. Harris R., Simons M. and Clayton B., (2005), Shifting mindsets: The changing work roles of vocational education and training practitioners, URL
  10. Hellriegel, Slocum and Woodman (1995), Organizational Behavior, ed.7th, West Publishing Company, US.
  11. Henderson, C.W. (1998), International Relations: Conflict and Cooperation at the Turn of the 21st Century, McGraw-Hill, USA.
  12. Hyytia N. and Kola J. (2005), Citizen attitudes towards multifunctional agriculture, University of Helsinki, URL
  13. ILO(2001), Human resources development, employment and globalization in the hotel, catering and tourism sector, Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on the Human Resources Development, Employment
  14. and Globalization in the Hotel, Catering and Tourism Sector TMHCT/2001, Geneva, URL
  15. Jallade L., Cuenin L. and Radi. M., (2001), National Education Policies and programs and International Cooperation: What role for UNESCO, UNESCO, Paris, URL
  16. McCaslin, N. L. and Parks D. (2002) Teacher Education in Career and Technical Education: Background and Policy Implications for the New Millennium, Journal of Vocational Education Research, 27(1), 69-108. 2002 URL
  17. McMillan Jame H. & Schumancher S. (1989), Research in Education - A conceptual Introduction, 2nd ed., Scott Foreman and Company, London.
  18. OEC (2004), Education in Thailand 2004, Office of the Education Council, Ministry of Education, Royal Thai Government, Thailand.
  19. OECD (2004), Chapter 4: Cross-border post-secondary education in the Asia-Pacific region, Internationalization and Trade in Higher Education Opportunities and Challenges, p.137 - p. 204. URL
  20. dataoecd/38/29/33730064.pdf
  21. O'Neill, H. (1999), toward unified concepts in development and development cooperation theory and practice, Europe and the South in the 21st Century: Challenges for Renewed Cooperation, Paris, 1999, URL
  22. Osborne R. D., (2006) Cross-border Higher Education Collaboration in Europe: lessons for the "two Irelands'?,European Journal of Education, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2006.
  23. Pearson F.S and Rochester J.M. (1992), International Relations: The Global Condition in the Late Twentieth Century, 3rd Ed,. McGraw-Hill, Inc, USA.
  24. Power C. N., (2000), Global Trends in Education, International Education Journal Vol 1, No 3, 2000 (p.152-p.163)
  25. Ruhland S. K. (2001), Factors that Influence the turnover and retention of Minnesota's teaching college teachers, Journal of Vocational Education research, Vol. 26, N0.1, pp. 56-76.
  26. Schermerhorn J.R., Hunt J. G., and Osborn R.N. (2005), Organizational Behavior, 9th Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA (p.72 - p.162)
  27. Secord, Paul F. (1964) Social psychology, New York : McGraw-Hill, c1649.
  28. Tuomela, Raimo (2000) Cooperation - A Philosophical Study, Kluwer Academic Publisher, p.1-p.28, URL
  29. UNESCAP (2004), Meeting the Challenges in an Era of Globalization by Strengthening Regional Development Cooperation, URL
  30. UNESCO and APQN (2006), UNESCO-APQN Toolkit: Regulating the Quality of Cross-Border Education URL
  31. Villegas-Reimers E.(2003), Teacher Professional Development: An International Review of the Literature, International Institute of Educational Planning,
  32. Zillmer, Sabin (2005), Chances for German-Polish Cooperation - a German Point of View, Working Paper, Erkner, Leibniz-Institute for Regional
  33. Development and Structural Planning 2005, URL