THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE FACTORS ON TOURIST VISITS IN PANGANDARAN COASTAL TOURISM AREA
One of the factors affecting tourism is the climatic conditions. It could become the attractiveness of tourism destinations, yet it can also interfere the performance of tourism in certain areas. In the last ten years, global climate have been changing, marked by changes in temperature, intensity and distribution of rainfall, wind speeds and patterns, etc. Climate change may impact tourism sector in various countries. Indonesia, as an archipelagic country and one of the world tourism destination, with various attractions, are vulnerable to climate change. One of the tourist destinations most vulnerable to climate change impacts is coastal tourism area. This paper discusses the phenomenon of climate change in Indonesia and the possible impact on coastal tourism from both, supply and demand sides. From the supply side, climate change could impact on coastal natural resource which has become the attraction of the coastal tourism, while from the demand side, climate change can affect the pattern of tourist visits to coastal tourism destinations. Although climate change and its impacts have not been felt by tourists and also managers of local tourism area, adaptation programs need to be proposed. Pangandaran beach tourism area, one of the leading and popular tourist destinations in West Java province, will be the focus of discussion in this paper.
Amelung, B., S. Nicholls, and D. Viner (2007). Implications of Global Climate Change for Tourism Flows and Seasonality. Travel Research 45: 285-296.
Amelung, Bas; Alvaro Moreno (2009). How Hot Is Too Hot? A Survey on Climate (Change) and Tourism.” Proceeding of CMT 2009, The 6 th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, 23-26 June,2009.
Bigano, Andrea, et al (2005). The Effect of Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events on Tourism. Working papers on The Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei Note, http://www.feem.it/Feem/Pub/Publications/WPapers/default.htm.
Bloomberg (2010). Peru to Evacuate Tourists After Machu Picchu Flooding.
Casimiro, Elsa (2007). Climate Change Impact on Human Health; Implication for Tourism in Southern Europe. University of Lisbon.
Hamilton, Jacqueline M., et al. (2005). Climate Change and International Tourism: A Simulation Study. Working Paper FNU-31. Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change Centre for Marine and Climate Research, Hamburg University, Hamburg.
Hein, L. (2007). The Impact of Climate Change on Tourism in Spain. CICERO Working Paper. Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Blindern.
IPCC (2007). Climate Change; Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report.
IPCC (2007). Climate Change: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policymakers. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, Amerika Serikat: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Lau, Maren A. (2006). Decision-Making in Relation to Climate and Climate Change in The People's Republic of China: from Adaptation to Sea-Level Rise to Destination Choice in Chinese Tourism. Doctoral Disertation, University of Hamburg.
Marshall and Schuttenberg (2006). The Impacts of Climate Change on the Coral Reefs of the Caribbean. http://www.jamaicachm.org.jm/Article/PDF/June2008.pdf
Michel, David and Amit Pandaya; eds. (2010). Coastal Zones and Climate Change. STIMSON
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2010). Hazards to Coral Reefs. NOAA’S Coral Reefs Information System. http://coris.noaa.gov/about/hazards/
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2010). Heat Wave; A Major Summer Killer. http://www.noaawatch.gov/themes/heat.php
Perry, A. (2009). Climate Change, The Environment and Tourism; The Interactions. Position Paper 1. http://fama2.us.es:8080/turismo/turismonet1/economia%20del%20turismo/
Republic of Indonesia (2009). Statistik Kunjungan Wisatawan Mancanegara ke Indonesia. Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata, Indonesia.
Rosyidie, Arief; et al. (2009). Dampak Perubahan Iklim Terhadap Sektor Pariwisata. Laporan Akhir, Program Hibah Kompetitif, Penelitian Sesuai Prioritas Nasional, Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Pada Masyarakat-Institut Teknologi Bandung.
Rosyidie, A. (2009). Impact of Climate Change on Mountainous Tourism Area. Proceeding of the International Conference of Urban and Regional Planning, Bandung, Indonesia, 12-13 November, 2009.
Suwarto, T. (2010). Identifikasi Pengaruh Iklim dan Perubahannya Terhadap Destinasi Pariwisata Pantai Pangandaran. Final Project, Department of Regional and Urban Planning, Bandung Institute of Technology.
Suroso, Djoko and Ibnu Sofyan (2009). Vulnerability of the Northern Coast of Java to Climate Change and the Need of Planning to Response. Paper presented at International Conference of Urban and Regional Planning, Bandung, Indonesia, 12-13 November, 2009.
Simpson, M.C et al. (2008). Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the Tourism Sector: Frameworks, Tools and Practices. UNEP, University of Oxford, UNWTO, WMO, Paris.
Viner, David and Maureen A. (1999). Climate Change and Its Impacts on Tourism. Report Prepared for WWF-UK. Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia, Norwich.
World Climate Programme (2007): Exploring the Climate and Tourism Relationship. www.wmo.int/pages/prog/wcp
UNWTO. (2010). World Tourism Barometer.
UNWTO. (2009). World Tourism Barometer.
UNWTO; OMT and IOHBTO (2009). Tourism Management Plan for Pangandaran, in Tourism Development; Supporting Biodiversity Conservation in PangandaranIndonesia.
Walker, Henry, et al. (2007). Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Global and Regional Climate. http://www.necci.sr.unh.edu/necci-report/NERAch3.pdf
World Bank and Department for International Development (2007). Indonesia and Climate Change. Working Paper on Current Status and Policies. Peace.
WTO. (2009). From Davos to Copenhagen and Beyond; Advancing Tourism’s Response to Climate Change. UNWTO Background Paper.
- There are currently no refbacks.