Torrefaction of Rubberwood Waste: The Effects of Particle Size, Temperature & Residence Time

Winny Wulandari, Nursayyidah Ainun Jahsy, Adrian Hartanto Tandias, Jenny Rizkiana, Inga Shaffira Rubani, Wibawa Hendra Saputera, Dwiwahju Sasongko

Abstract


Agriculture waste has created massive challenges over the last few decades and yet also opportunities. This work aimed to produce high-quality biochar from rubberwood waste with calorific properties close to subbituminous coal. Using a tubular vertical reactor, the effects of rubberwood particle size (wood chips and shredded wood), torrefaction temperature (220, 260, and 300 °C), and residence time (30, 60, and 90 minutes) on the quality of torrefied rubberwood were studied. The results showed that the mass loss of the rubberwood increased as the temperature increased. Also, the particle size and residence time increased due to excessive devolatilization. A higher fixed-carbon content and calorific value as well as lower moisture and volatile-matter content were achieved by increasing the torrefaction temperature and residence time in comparison to the untreated sample (raw rubberwood). The highest fixed-carbon content and calorific value were found to be 56.7% and 6313 kcal/kg, respectively, for the wood chip particles that were torrefied at 300 °C for 60 minutes. Based on the Van Krevelen diagram, torrefaction of woodchip rubberwood at 300 °C with a residence time of 60 minutes demonstrated the optimum condition to generate a product with properties that are close to those of subbituminous rank coal.


Keywords


calorific value; particle size; residence time; rubberwood waste; temperature; torrefaction

Full Text:

PDF

References


Wijaya, A., Chrysolite, H., Ge, M., Wibowo, C.K., Pradana, A., Utami, A.F., & Austin, K., How Can Indonesia Achieve Its Climate Change Mitigation Goal? An Analysis of Potential Emissions Reductions from Energy and Land Uses Policies, World Research Institute: Washington, pp. 1-36, 2017.

Dani, S. & Wibawa, A., Challenges and Policy for Biomass Energy in Indonesia, International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, 15(5), pp. 41-47, 2018.

Ribeiro, J.M.C., Godina, R., Matias, J.C.d.O. & Nunes, L.J.R., Future Perspectives of Biomass Torrefaction: Review of the Current State-of-the-Art and Research Development, Sustainability, 10(7), pp. 1-17, 2018.

Basu, P., Biomass Gasification,in Basu, P., Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, ed. 2, Boston: Academic Press, pp. 47-86, 2013.

Davis, S.C., Hay, W. & Pierce, J., Biomass in the Energy Industry: An Introduction, ed. 1, London: British Petroleum, 2014.

Nhuchhen, D.R., Basu, P. & Acharya, B., A Comprehensive Review on Biomass Torrefaction, International Journal of Renewable Energy & Biofuels 2014, pp. 1-56, 2014.

Chew, J.J. & Doshi, V., Recent Advances in Biomass Pretreatment – Torrefaction Fundamentals and Technology, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(8), pp. 4212-4222, 2011.

Wood, L., Indonesia’s Rubber Industry Analysis 2018. Research and Markets, Technical Report TR-4649467 (1-35), Research and Markets, New York, 2018.

Kaewluan, S. & Pipatmanomai, S., Gasification of High Moisture Rubber Woodchip with Rubber Waste in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Fuel Processing Technology, 92(3), pp. 671-677, 2011.

Shariff, A., Hakim, R. & Abdullah, N., Rubberwood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis, International Journal of Chemical and Molecular Engineering, 10, pp. 1415-1420, 2016.

Raychaudhuri, A. & Ghosh, S.K., Biomass Supply Chain in Asian and European Countries, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35, pp. 914-924, 2016.

Thrän, D., Witt, J., Schaubach, K., Kiel, J., Carbo, M., Maier, J., Ndibe, C., Koppejan, J., Alakangas, E., Majer, S. & Schipfer, F., Moving Torrefaction towards Market Introduction -Technical Improvements and Economic-Environmental Assessment along the Overall Torrefaction Supply Chain through the SECTOR Project, Biomass and Bioenergy, 89, pp. 184-200, 2016.

Chen, W.-H., Peng, J. & Bi, X.T., A State-of-the-Art Review of Biomass Torrefaction, Densification and Applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 44, pp. 847-866, 2015.

Krukanont, P. & Prasertsan, S., Geographical Distribution of Biomass and Potential Sites of Rubber Wood Fired Power Plants in Southern Thailand, Biomass and Bioenergy, 26(1), pp. 47-59, 2004.

Tumuluru, J.S., Wright, C.T., Boardman, R.D. & Heintzelman, J., Changes in Moisture, Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Volatiles and Calorific Value of Miscanthus Samples during Torrefaction, Conference: AIChE Annual Meeting, 2010.

Felfli, F.F., Luengo, C.A., Suárez, J.A. & Beatón, P.A., Wood Briquette Torrefaction, Energy for Sustainable Development, 9(3), pp. 19-22, 2005.

Chen, W-H., Wang, C.-W., Kumar, G., Rousset, P. & Hsieh, T-H., Effect of Torrefaction Pretreatment on the Pyrolysis of Rubber Wood Sawdust Analyzed By Py-GC/MS, Bioresource Technology, 259, pp. 469-473, 2018.

Tumuluru, J.S., Wright, C.T., Boardman, R.D., Heintzelman, J., Sokhansanj, S. & Hess, J.R., A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties for Energy Applications, Industrial Biotechnology, 7(5), pp. 384-401, 2011.

Tsalidis, G.A., Di Marcello, M., Spinelli, G., de Jong, W. & Kiel, J.H.A., The Effect of Torrefaction on the Process Performance of Oxygen-Steam Blown CFB Gasification of Hardwood and Softwood, Biomass and Bioenergy, 106, pp. 155-165, 2017.

Louwes, A.C., Basile, L., Yukananto, R., Bhagwandas, J.C., Bramer, E.A. & Brem, G., Torrefied Biomass as Feed for Fast Pyrolysis: An Experimental Study and Chain Analysis, Biomass and Bioenergy, 105, pp. 116-126, 2017.

Bridgeman, T.G., Jones, J.M., Shield, I. & Williams, P.T., Torrefaction of Reed Canary Grass, Wheat Straw and Willow to Enhance Solid Fuel Qualities and Combustion Properties, Fuel, 87(6), pp. 844-856, 2008.

Mathews, J.P., Krishnamoorthy, V., Louw, E., Tchapda, A.H.N., Castro-Marcano, F., Karri, V., Alexis, D.A. & Mitchell, G.D., A Review of the Correlations of Coal Properties with Elemental Composition, Fuel Processing Technology, 121, pp. 104-113, 2014.

Chelgani, S.C., Hower, J.C., Jorjani, E., Mesroghli, S. & Bagherieh, A.H., Prediction of Coal Grindability Based on Petrography, Proximate and Ultimate Analysis Using Multiple Regression and Artificial Neural Network Models, Fuel Processing Technology, 89(1), pp. 13-20, 2008.

Shang, L., Ahrenfeldt, J., Holm, J.K., Sanadi, A.R., Barsberg, S., Thomsen, T., Stelte, W. & Henriksen, U.B., Changes of Chemical and Mechanical Behavior of Torrefied Wheat Straw, Biomass and Bioenergy, 40, pp. 63-70, 2012.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fj.eng.technol.sci.2020.52.2.1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.