Microplastics Contamination in a High Population Density Area of the Chao Phraya River, Bangkok

Anh Tuan Ta, Sandhya Babel, Andreas Haarstick

Abstract


Microplastics (MPs) are distributed globally, including in aquatic environments. While a large number of studies on MPs in marine environments have been performed, few studies are available in freshwater environments. Therefore, the distribution of MPs in surface water and sediment from the Chao Phraya River at Tha Prachan, a high population density area of Bangkok, was investigated. Water samples were collected by a manta trawl with a net mesh size of 300 mm. Sediment samples were collected by a Van Veen grab sampler. The total number and concentration of MPs in the water samples were found to be 104 particles/m3 and 805.20 mg/m3, respectively. The dominant MPs were fragments, 0.5 to 1.0 mm in size, for the water samples. In the sediment, MPs were detected only in a size range of 0.053 to 0.5 mm with a total number and concentration of 2,290 particles/kg and 650 mg/kg, respectively. The presence of different types of MPs was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy with a dominant abundance of polypropylene, polyethylene, and polystyrene. In brief, this study suggests that high levels of MPs occur not only in the water but also in the sediment of the Chao Phraya River at Tha Prachan area.


Keywords


Bangkok; Chao Phraya River; microplastics; plastic waste; water security

Full Text:

PDF

References


Fendall, L.S. Sewell, M.A.: Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: microplastics in facial cleansers. Marine pollution bulletin, 2009, 58(8), 1225-1228.

Moore, C.J.: Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat. Environmental research, 2008, 108(2), 131-139.

Parliament, E.: Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Official Journal of the European Union L, 2008, 164, 19-40.

Barnes, D.K., Galgani, F., Thompson, R.C.Barlaz, M.: Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 2009, 364(1526), 1985-1998.

Gregory, M.R. Andrady, A.L.: Plastics in the marine environment. Plastics and the Environment, 2003, 379, 389-90.

Napper, I.E., Bakir, A., Rowland, S.J.Thompson, R.C.: Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2015, 99(1-2), 178-185.

Cheung, P.K. Fok, L.: Evidence of microbeads from personal care product contaminating the sea. Marine pollution bulletin, 2016, 109(1), 582-585.

Browne, M.A., Crump, P., Niven, S.J., Teuten, E., Tonkin, A., Galloway, T.Thompson, R.: Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines woldwide: sources and sinks. Environmental science & technology, 2011, 45(21), 9175-9179.

Napper, I.E. Thompson, R.C.: Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: effects of fabric type and washing conditions. Marine pollution bulletin, 2016, 112(1-2), 39-45.

Wright, S.L., Thompson, R.C.Galloway, T.S.: The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review. Environmental pollution, 2013, 178, 483-492.

Committee, E.A., Environmental impact of microplastics. Fourth Report of Session 2016–17. 2016: United Kingdom.

Rochman, C.M., Tahir, A., Williams, S.L., Baxa, D.V., Lam, R., Miller, J.T., Teh, F.-C., Werorilangi, S.Teh, S.J.: Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption. Scientific reports, 2015, 5, 14340.

Matsuguma, Y., Takada, H., Kumata, H., Kanke, H., Sakurai, S., Suzuki, T., Itoh, M., Okazaki, Y., Boonyatumanond, R.Zakaria, M.P.: Microplastics in Sediment Cores from Asia and Africa as Indicators of Temporal Trends in Plastic Pollution. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2017, 1-10.

Thushari, G.G.N., Senevirathna, J.D.M., Yakupitiyage, A.Chavanich, S.: Effects of microplastics on sessile invertebrates in the eastern coast of Thailand: An approach to coastal zone conservation. Marine pollution bulletin, 2017, 124(1), 349-355.

Masura, J., Baker, J.E., Foster, G.D., Arthur, C.Herring, C.: Laboratory methods for the analysis of microplastics in the marine environment: recommendations for quantifying synthetic particles in waters and sediments. 2015.

Hidalgo-Ruz, V., Gutow, L., Thompson, R.C.Thiel, M.: Microplastics in the marine environment: a review of the methods used for identification and quantification. Environmental science & technology, 2012, 46(6), 3060-3075.

Zbyszewski, M. Corcoran, P.L.: Distribution and degradation of fresh water plastic particles along the beaches of Lake Huron, Canada. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2011, 220(1-4), 365-372.

Song, Y.K., Hong, S.H., Jang, M., Han, G.M., Jung, S.W.Shim, W.J.: Combined effects of UV exposure duration and mechanical abrasion on microplastic fragmentation by polymer type. Environmental science & technology, 2017, 51(8), 4368-4376.

Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Rocher, V., Saad, M., Renault, N.Tassin, B.: Microplastic contamination in an urban area: a case study in Greater Paris. Environmental Chemistry, 2015, 12(5), 592-599.

Lechner, A., Keckeis, H., Lumesberger-Loisl, F., Zens, B., Krusch, R., Tritthart, M., Glas, M.Schludermann, E.: The Danube so colourful: a potpourri of plastic litter outnumbers fish larvae in Europe's second largest river. Environmental Pollution, 2014, 188, 177-181.

Ta, A. Babel, S. Microplastic pollution in surface water of the Chao Phraya River in Ang Thong area. in The 5th EnvironmentAsia International Conference: Transboundary Environment Nexus: From Local to Regional Perspectives. 2019. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Thai Society for Higher Education on Environment.

Klein, S., Worch, E.Knepper, T.P.: Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in river shore sediments of the Rhine-Main area in Germany. Environmental science & technology, 2015, 49(10), 6070-6076.

Wang, J., Peng, J., Tan, Z., Gao, Y., Zhan, Z., Chen, Q.Cai, L.: Microplastics in the surface sediments from the Beijiang River littoral zone: Composition, abundance, surface textures and interaction with heavy metals. Chemosphere, 2017, 171, 248-258.

Lusher, A., Hollman, P.Mendoza-Hill, J.: Microplastics in fisheries and aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper (FAO) eng no. 615, 2017.

Hussain, N., Jaitley, V.Florence, A.T.: Recent advances in the understanding of uptake of microparticulates across the gastrointestinal lymphatics. Advanced drug delivery reviews, 2001, 50(1-2), 107-142.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.