Evaluation of Lateral and Axial Deformation for Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) Tunnel Construction Using 3 Dimension Finite Element Method
Mass Rapid Transit Jakarta (MRTJ) phase 1 tunnel construction using the earth pressure balance method has been completed and surface settlement and lateral displacement data according to elevation and inclinometer readings has been collected to evaluate the effect of tunnel?s construction on surrounding infrastructure. Soil stratification along the research area, defined according to boring logs and soil parameters for the hardening soil model (HSM) and the soft soil model (SSM), was determined by optimization of stress-strain curve fitting between CU triaxial test, consolidation test and soil test models in the Plaxis 3D software. Evaluation of the result of surface settlement measurements using an automatic digital level combined with geodetic GPS for elevation and position control points showed that the displacement behavior was affected by vehicle load and stiffness of the pavement. Lateral displacement measurements using inclinometers give a more accurate result since they are placed on the soil and external influences are smaller than surface settlement measurement. The result of 3D finite element modeling showed that surface settlement and lateral displacement during TBM construction can be predicted using HSM with 2% contraction. SSM and the closed-form solutions of Loganathan and Poulos are unable to provide a good result compared to the actual displacement from measurements.
Verruijt, A. & Booker, J.R., Surface Settlements due to Deformation of a Tunnel in an Elastic Half Plane, Geotechnique, 46(4), pp. 753-756, 1996.
Longanathan, N. & Poulos, Fellow, H.G., Analytical Prediction for Tunneling-induced Ground Movements in Clays, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenviromental Engineering, 1998.
Atkinson, J.H. & Potts, D.M., Stability of a Shallow Circular Tunnel in Cohesionless Soil, Geotechnique, 27(2), pp. 203-215, 1977.
O?Reilly, M.P. & New, B.M., Settlements Above Tunnels in the UK ? Their Magnitude and Prediction, Tunneling, 82, pp. 173-181, 1982.
Mair, R.J, Developments in Geotechnical Engineering Research, Application to Tunnels and Deep Excavations, Unwin Memorial Lecture, Proceedings Institution of Civil Engineers, Civil Engineering, 93, pp. 27-41, 1993.
Attewell P.B., Ground Movement Caused by Tunneling in Soil, Proceeding of the Large Ground Movements and Structures Conference, Cardiff, Pentech Press, London, pp. 812-948, 1977.
Clough, G.W. & Schmidt, Excavations and Tunneling, in Soft Clay Engineering, Chapter 8, E.W. Brand & R.P. Brenner, eds., Elsevier, 1981.
Maji, V.B. & Adugna, A., Numerical Modelling of Tunneling Induced Ground Deformation and Its Control, International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering, IJMGE, 50(2), pp. 183-188, 2016.
Lueprasert, P., Jonpradist, P. & Suwansawat, S., Tunneling Simulation in Soft Ground Using Shell Elements and Grouting Layer, International Journal of GEOMATE, 12(31), pp. 51-57, 2017.
Litsas, D., Sitarenios, D. & Kavvadas, M., Advanced Numerical Analysis of EPB Tunneling Using Critical State Plasticity, World Tunnel Congress, Dubai, UAE, 2018.
FHWA, Road Tunnel Design Guidelines, Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington DC, 2005.
FHWA, Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels, Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington DC, 2009.
Fahmi, A., Desyanti., Masyhur., I., Bigman., H., Endra., S., Riska, M. & Weni, M., Evaluation of Surface Settlement and Lateral Displacement During Tunnel Construction Using 3D Numerical Modelling, 20th SEAGC-3rd AGSSEA Conference Proceedings, Indonesia, 6-7 November 2018.
Shimizu-Obayashi-Wijaya Karya-Jaya Konstruksi (SOWJ), Jakarta MRT CP104/105 Construction Progress, Technical Meeting Material, 2015.
Schmidt, B.F., Settlements and Ground Movements Associated with Tunneling in Soils, PhD thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1969.
Peck, R.B., Deep Excavation and Tunneling in Soft Ground, Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Mexico City, State-of-the-art Volume, pp. 225-290, 1969.
Rowe, R.K. & Lee, K.M., Subsidence Owing to Tunneling, II Evaluation of a Prediction Technique, Can. Geotech. J., 29(6), pp. 941-954, 1992.
Moller, S., Tunnel Induced Settlements and Structural Forces in Linings. PhD thesis. Universit Stuttgart, ISBN-10: 3-921837-54-5, 2006.
Lee, K.M. & Rowe, R.K., An Analysis of Three-Dimensional Ground Movements: The Thunder Bay Tunnel, Canadian Geotech. Jl., 28, pp. 25-41, 1991.
Augarde, C.E., Burd, H.J. & Houlsby, G.T., Some Experiences of Modelling Tunnelling in Soft Ground Using Three-Dimensional Finite Elements, Proc. 4th European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, Udine, 14-16 October, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-211-83141-X, pp 603-612, 1998.
Hoefsloot, F.J.M. & Verweij., A., 4D Grouting Pressure Model Plaxis, 5th Int. Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground, pp. 529-534, 2005
Litsas, D., Sitarenios, P. & Kavvadas, M., Advanced Numerical Analyses of EPB Tunneling Using Critical State Plasticity, ITA-AITES World Tunnel Congress Proceedings, Dubai, 21-26 April 2018.
Plaxis, Part 3: Plaxis Material Models Manual. Delft University of Technology & Plaxis B.V., The Netherlands, 2017.
Plaxis, Part 2: Plaxis Reference Manual. Delft University of Technology & Plaxis B.V., The Netherlands, 2017.
Lim, A., Ou, C.Y. & Hsieh, P.G., Evaluation Clay of Constitutive Models for Analysis of Deep Excavation Under Undrained Conditions, Journal of GeoEngineering, 5(1), pp. 9-20, April 2010.
Corvello, M. & Finno, R., Selecting Parameters to Optimize in Model Calibration by Inverse Analysis, Computer and Geotechnics, 31, pp. 410-424, 2004.