The Integration of MAFMA and AHP Methods for Analysis and Risk Mitigation of Pasteurized Milk Production

Imam Santoso, Miftahus Sa’adah, Eva Novita Sari, Puspa Ayu Indah Prameswari, Chintya Rizki Agustina


Risk and uncertainty management is an important task in industry. Risks in raw materials such as livestock products may occur from the feed. The production process is also exposed to risks, which may be caused by controllable variables. In final products, uncontrollable actions may also pose risks. This research aimed to figure out the risks and their causes in the production process of milk and to discover applicable mitigation strategies. The methods used in this study were the Multi-Attribute Failure Mode Analysis (MAFMA) method to find the causes and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to discover mitigation strategies. The results were in the form of risks in the production process caused by: 1) raw materials, 2) the production process, 3) human resources, and 4) machinery and equipment. The highest risk in the production process is posed by undetected damage to machinery and contamination during the production process. However, both are rooted in human error: poorly trained workers, omission of checking or testing, and poor supervision of the process. Mitigation strategies, i.e. standardization and supervision of the raw materials, production process, and final product, were implemented to reduce the potential risks. In the implementation of these strategies, worker participation, either as controller or as supervisor, is very important.


AHP; MAFMA; production process; pasteurized milk; risk analysis; risk mitigation.

Full Text:



Wang, H., Khan, F., Ahmed, S. & Imtiaz, S., Dynamic Quantitative Operational Risk Assessment of Chemical Processes, Chemical Engineering Science, 142, pp. 62-78, 2016.

Serra, P., Colauzzi, M. & Amaducci, S., Biomass Sorghum Production Risk Assessment Analysis: A Case Study on Electricity Production in the Po Valley, Biomass and Bioenergy, 96, pp. 75-86. 2017.

Berg, H., Risk Management: Procedures, Methods and Experiences, RT&A, 2(17), 1, pp. 79-95, 2010.

Mital, P., Goetschalckx, M. & Huang, E., Robust Material Handling System Design with Standard Deviation, Variance and Downside Risk as Risk Measures, Int. J. Production Economics, 170, pp. 815-824, 2015.

Sausa, C.P. de, The Impact of Food Manufacturing Practices on Food Borne Diseases, Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 51(4), pp. 815-823, 2008.

Melhem, I.B., Impact of the Human Resources on the Risk Management and the Company Performance, International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences, 5(2), pp. 1-5. 2016.

Schaper, C. Lassen, B. & Theuvsen, L., Risk Management in Milk Production: A Study in Five European Countries, 113th EAAE Seminar “A Resilient European Food Industry and Food Chain in a Challenging World”, Chania, Crete, Greece, date as in: September 3-6, 2009.

Oliveira, L.P. de, Soares e Barros L.S., Silva, V.C. & Cirqueira, M.G., Microbiological Quality and Detection of Antibiotic Residue in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Consumed in the Recôncavo Area of the State of Bahia, Brazil, J Food Process Technol, 3(137), pp. 1-5, 2012.

Panfiloiu, M., Cara, M.C., Perju, D.M. & Dumitrel, G.A., Quality Control of Pastry Products Using the HACCP Method, Chemical Bulletin of Politehnica, 56(70), pp. 47-52, 2011.

Kurt, L. & Ozilgen, S., Failure Mode and Effect Analysis for Dairy Product Manufacturing: Practical Safety Improvement Action Plan with Cases from Turkey, Safety Science, 55, pp. 195-206, 2013.

Ozkok, M., The Effects of Machine Breakdown on Hull Structure Production Process, Scientia Iranica, 20(3), pp. 900-908.

Azizi, A., Evaluation Improvement of Production Productivity Performance using Statistical Process Control, Overall Equipment Efficiency, and Autonomous Maintenance, Procedia Manufacturing, 2, pp. 186-190.

National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Dioxins and Dioxinlike Compounds in The Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure, Washington, DC, United States: National Academy Press, 2003.

Welsch-Pausch, K. & McLachlan, M.S., Fate of Airborne Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in an Agricultural Ecosystem, Environ Pollut, 02(1), 129-37, 1998.

Schulz, A.J, Wiesmuller, T., Appuhn, H., Stehr, D., Severin, K. & Landmann, D., Dioxin Concentration in Milk and Tissues of Cows and Sheep Related to Feed and Soil Contamination, J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 89, pp. 72-8, 2005.

Mamontova, E.A., Tarasova, E.N., Mamontov, A.A., Kuzmin, M.I., McLachlan, M.S. & Khomutova, M.I., The Influence of Soil Contamination on The Concentrations of Pcbs in Milk in Siberia, Chemosphere, 67, pp. 71-78, 2007.

Fürst, P., Beck, H. & Theelen, R.M.C., Assessment of Human Intake of Pcdds and Pcdfs from Different Environmental Sources, Toxicol Subst J. 12, pp. 133-150, 1992.

Williams, J.H., Phillips, T.D., Jolly, P.E., Stiles, J.K., Jolly, C.M. & Aggarwal, D., Human Aflatoxicosis in Developing Countries: A Review of Toxicology, Exposure, Potential Health Consequences and Interventions, The American J. Clinical Nutrition, 80, pp. 1106-1122, 2004.

Nguyen-The, C., Biological Hazards in Processed Fruits and Vegetables Risk Factors and Impact of Processing Techniques, LWT – Food Science and Technology, 49, pp. 172-177, 2012.

Claeys, W. L., Cardoen, S., Daube, G., Block, J. D., Dewettinck, K., Dierick, K., Zutter, L. D., Huyghebaert, A., Imberechts, H., Thiange, P., Vandenplas, Y. & Herman, L., Raw or Heated Cow Milk Consumption: Review of Risks and Benefits, Food Control, 31, pp. 251-262, 2013.

Zhang, Q., Cremer, J.L., Grossmnn, I.E. & Sundaramoorthy, A., Risk-Based Integrated Production Scheduling and Electricity Procurement for Continuous Power-Intensive Processes, Computers and Chemical Engineering. 86, pp. 90-105, 2016.

Schaper, C., Lassen, B. & Theuvsen, L., Risk Management in Milk Production: A Study in Five European Countries, 113th EAAE Seminar “A Resilient European Food Industry and Food Chain in a Challenging World”, Chania, Crete, Greece, date as in: September 3-6, 2009.

Tixier, J., Dusserre, G., Salvi, O. & Gaston, D., Review of 62 Risk Analysis Methodologies of Industrial Plants, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 15, pp. 291-303. 2002.

Curkovic, S., Scannell, T. & Wagner B., Using FMEA for Supply Chain Risk Management, Modern Management Science & Engineering, 1(2), pp.251-265, 2013.

Silva de Santis, S.H. da, Marcicano, J.P.P, Dedini, F.G., Sanches, R.A. & de Held, M.S.B., Use of Quality Tools for Problem Analysis (FMEA and Ishikawa Diagram) in a Small Textile Business, J. Textile Sci. Eng., 6(258), pp. 1-6, 2016.

Sutrisno, A., Gunawan, I. & Tangkuman, S., Modified Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Model for Accessing the Risk of Maintenance Waste, Procedia Manufacturing, 4, pp. 23 -29, 2015.

Segismundo, A. & Miguel, P.A.C., Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in the Context of Risk Management in New Product Development: A Case Study in an Automotive Company, International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 25(9), pp. 899-912, 2008.

Parsana, T.S. & Patel, M.T., A Case Study: A Process FMEA Tool to Enhance Quality and Efficiency of Manufacturing Industry, Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, 4(3), pp. 145-152, 2014.

Arvanitoyannis, I.S. & Varzakas, T.H., Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Cause and Effect Analysis and Pareto Diagram in Conjunction with HACCP to A Potato Chips Manufacturing Plant, International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 42(12), pp. 1424-1442, 2007.

Braglia, M., MAFMA: Multi-Attribute Failure Mode Analysis, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 17(9), pp. 1017-1033, 2000.

Baloch, A.U. & Mohammadian, H., Fuzzy Failure Modes and Effects Analysis by Using Fuzzy Vikor and Data Envelopment Analysis-Based Fuzzy AHP, International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 3(8), pp. 23-30, 2016.

Santoso, I., Sa’adah, M. & Wijana, S., QFD and Fuzzy AHP for Formulating Product Concept of Probiotic Beverages for Diabetic, Telkomnika, 15(1), pp. 391-398, 2017.

Wang, Y.M., Chin, K.S., Poon, G.K.K. & Yang, J.B., Risk Evaluation in Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Using Fuzzy Weighted Geometric Mean, Expert Systems with Applications, 36, pp. 1195-1207, 2009.

Ghosh, A., Sindhu, S., Panghal, A. & Bhayana, S., Modelling the Enablers for Risk Management in Milk Processing Industry, International Journal of Management and International Business Studies, 4(1), pp. 9-16, 2014.



  • There are currently no refbacks.