Development of Braking Force Distribution Strategy for Dual-Motor-Drive Electric Vehicle

Binbin Sun, Pengwei Wang, Song Gao, Jie Yu, Zhangu Wang

Abstract


In the development of the optimal braking force distribution strategy for a dual-motor-drive electric vehicle (DMDEV) with a series cooperative braking system, three key factors were taken into consideration, i.e. the regenerative force distribution coefficient between the front and the rear motor (β), the energy recovery coefficient at the wheels (α3), and the front-and-rear-axle braking force distribution coefficient (λ). First, the overall power loss model of the two surface-mounted permanent magnetic synchronous motors (SMPMSMs) was created based on the d-q axis equivalent circuit model. The optimal relationship of β and the overall efficiency of the dual-motor system were confirmed, where the latter was quite different from that obtained from the traditional look-up table method for the motors’ efficiency. Then, four dimensionless evaluation coefficients were used to evaluate braking stability, regenerative energy transfer efficiency, and energy recovery at the wheels. Finally, based on several typical braking operations, the comprehensive effects of the four coefficients on braking stability and energy recovery were revealed. An optimal braking force distribution strategy balancing braking stability and energy recovery is suggested for a DMDEV with a series cooperative braking system.

Keywords


braking stability; braking force distribution strategy; dual-motor-drive electric vehicle; energy recovery; overall power loss of dual-motor system

Full Text:

PDF

References


Santos, A., Mcguckin, N. & Nakamoto, H., Summary of Travel Trends: 2009 National Household Travel Survey, US Department of Transportation, Washington DC, 2011.

Chan, C.C., Bouscayrol, A. & Chen, K., Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel-Cell Vehicles: Architectures and Modelling, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 59(2), pp. 589-598, 2010.

Mutoh, N., Kato, T. & Murakami, K., Front-and-Rear-Wheel-Independence-Drive-Type Electric Vehicle (FRID EV) Taking the Lead for Next Generation Eco-Vehicles, SAE Paper, 39, pp. 7206, 2010.

TESLA, Revolution of Automobile Engineering, https://www.tesla.cn/models, accessed on April 17, 2015.

Hong-Qiang, G., Hong-Wei, H. & Xiao-Kun, S., Hierarchical Optimization Method for Regenerative Braking Stability of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology (English Edition), 23, pp. 1-7, 2014.

Binbin, S., Song, G., Zhe, W. & Junwei, L., Parameters Design and Economy Study of an Electric Vehicle with Powertrain System in Front and Rear Axle, International Journal of Engineering TRANSACTIONS A: Basics, 29(4), pp. 454-463, 2016.

Kang, J., Yoo, J. & Yi, K., Driving Control Algorithm for Maneuverability, Lateral Stability, and Rollover Prevention of 4WD Electric Vehicles with Independently Driven Front and Rear Wheels, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 60(7), pp. 2987-3001, 2011.

Mutoh, N., Takahashi, Y. & Tomita, Y., Failsafe Drive Performance of FRID Electric Vehicles with the Structure Driven by the Front and Rear Wheels Independently, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 55(6), pp. 2306-2315, 2008.

Wueng, C-C., Yang, Y-H. & Cheng, J-H. An Improved Regenerative Braking Control Strategy and System for Dual Motor Electric Vehicle, The 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition, Shenzhen, China, pp. 5-9, 2010.

Antanaitis, D.B., Effect of Regenerative Braking on Foundation Brake Performance, SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars – Mechanical Systems, 3(2), pp. 14-30, 2010.

Li, L., Zhang, Y., Yang, C., Yang, B. & Martinez, C.M., Model Predictive Control-based Efficient Energy Recovery Control Strategy for Regenerative Braking System of Hybrid Electric Bus, Energy Conversion & Management, 111, pp. 299-314, 2016.

Afjei, E., Hashemipour, O., Saati, M. & Nezamabadi, M., A New Hybrid Brushless Dc Motor/Generator without Permanent Magnet, International Journal of Engineering Transactions B Applications, 20(1), pp. 77-86, 2007.

Guo, H., He, H. & Xiao, X., A Predictive Distribution Model for Cooperative Braking System of an Electric Vehicle, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2014 (3), pp. 1-11, 2014.

Li, L., Li, X., Wang, X., Transient Switching Control Strategy from Regenerative Braking to Anti-lock Braking with a Semi-brake-by-wire system, Vehicle System Dynamics, 54(2), pp. 257-283, 2016.

Wang. F. & Zhuo, B., Regenerative Braking Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Regenerative Torque Optimization Control, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 222, pp. 499-513, 2008.

Shi, Q., Zhang X. & Chen, F., Multi-lookup Table based Regenerative Braking Strategy of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 44-47, pp. 1509-1513, 2011.

Xu, W., Zheng, H. & Liu, Z., The Regenerative Braking Control Strategy of Four-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicle Based on Power Generation Efficiency of Motors, SAE World Congress and Exhibition; Detroit, MI, United States, 2, pp. 97364, 2013.

Pennycott, A., De Novellis, L., Gruber, P. & Sorniotti, A., Optimal Braking Force Allocation for a Four-wheel Drive Fully Electric Vehicle, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part I: Journal of Systems and control Engineering, 288(8), pp. 621-628, 2014.

Shen, Q., Xu, F., Han, X., Tong, W. & Tang, R., Investigation on the Variation of Iron Loss of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Traction Motor under Different Load Toque, In: International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, pp. 1-5, 2011.

Pennycott, A., De Novellis, L., Gruber, P., Sorniotti, A. & Goggia, T., Enhancing the Energy Efficiency of Fully Electric Vehicles via the Minimization of Motor Power Losses, In: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), pp. 4167-4172, 2013.

Wang, R., Chen, Y., Feng, D., Huang, X. & Wang, J., Development and Performance Characterization of an Electric Ground Vehicle with Independently Actuated In-wheel Motors, Journal of Power Sources, 196(8), pp. 3962-3971, 2011.

Chen, Y. & Wang, J., A Global Optimization Algorithm for Energy-Efficient Control Allocation of Over-Actuated Systems, In: Proc. 2011 American Control Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 5300-5305, 2011.

Chen, Y. & Wang, J., Energy-Efficient Control Allocation for Over-Actuated Systems with Electric Vehicle Applications, In: Proc. 2010 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conf. (DSCC2010), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, pp. 37-44, 2010.

Sangtarash, F., Esfahanian, V., Nehzati, H., Haddadi, S., Bavanpour, M.A. & Haghpanah, B., Effect of Different Regenerative Braking Strategies on Braking Performance and Fuel Economy in a Hybrid Electric Bus Employing CRUISE Vehicle Simulation, SAE paper: (01), p.1561, 2008.

Ji, F. & Liu, L., Study on Stability of Electro-Mechanical Hybrid Braking System in Electric Vehicles Based on ECE Regulation, In: Proceedings- International Conference on Computer Distributed Control and Intelligent Environmental Monitoring, CDCIEM, pp. 1358-1362, 2011.

Qiu, B. & Chen, Q., Evaluation Method of Regenerative Braking for Electric City Bus, Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 48(16), pp. 80-85, 2012.

Simard, J. & Sarraillon, S., Electric Vehicle Braking System, U.S. Patent Application 10/459, 594, 2003.

Urasaki, N., Senjyu, T. & Uezato, K., An Accurate Modelling for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives, In: the 15th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, pp. 387-392, 2000.

Seung-Ki, S., Zhang Y. & Liu, Z. Motor Drive System Control, Machinery Industry Press, Beijing, China, 2013.

Lee, J., Nam, K., Choi, S. & Kwon, S. Loss-Minimizing Control of PMSM with the Use of Polynomial Approximations, IEEE Transactions on power electronics, 24(4), pp. 1071-1082, 2009.

Gieras, J.F. & Wing, M., Permanent Magnet Motor Technology, Design Applications, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., pp. 1181-1187, 2002.

Economic Commission for Europe, Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles of Categories M, N and O with Regard to Braking, Addendum 12, Regulation No.13, 2008.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fj.eng.technol.sci.2018.50.2.3

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.