Development and Performance Evaluation of Coir Pith Ash as Supplementary Cementitious Material in Concrete

Balagopal Venugopal, Viswanathan Sambamurthy


India is the third largest producer of coconuts in the world after Indonesia and Brazil. The production of coconuts generates enormous volumes of by-products, which are dumped in landfills, causing issues like soil and air contamination, pollution of groundwater and other water bodies, with hazardous impacts on plant and animal life. Coir pith and short fibers are by-products from the coir industry obtained during the extraction of long fibers and account for approximately 70% of the mature coconut husk. Coir pith ash (CPA) was prepared by heating the dried coir pith in a metallic vessel at a temperature of 400 °C for 4 hours. The current paper shows an elaborate technical study on the material properties and performance of CPA in blended cements. The properties of concrete investigated were setting time, workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity values. The specimens were tested at curing ages of 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. The test results indicated that CPA has moderate pozzolanic properties, with 10% as optimum replacement percentage.


supplementary cementitious material; pozzolanic material; agricultural waste; concrete

Full Text:



US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, 2018. (31 March 2018)

Khan, R., Jabbar, A., Ahmad, I., Khan, W., Khan, A.N. & Mirza, J., Reduction in Environmental Problems Using Rice-husk Ash in Concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 30, pp. 360-365, 2012.

Hwang, C.L., Tuan, B.L.A. & Chen, C.-T., Effect of Rice Husk Ash on the Strength and Durability Characteristics of Concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 25(9), pp. 3768-3772, 2011.

Alex, Josephin, J. Dhanalakshmi & Ambedkar, B., Experimental Investigation on Rice Husk Ash as Cement Replacement on Concrete Production, Construction and Building Materials, 127, pp. 353-362, 2016.

Madandoust, R., Ranjbar, M.M., Moghadam, H.A. & Mousavi, S.Y., Mechanical Properties and Durability Assessment of Rice Husk Ash Concrete, Biosystems Engineering, 110(2), pp. 144-152, 2011.

FAO, FAO Statistical Yearbook 2014, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2014.

Reghuvaran, A., & Ravindranath, A.D., Process Improvement of Coir Pith Degradation Involving White Rot Fungi By Substitution of Urea With Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria and Application of Biodegraded Coir Pith as Plant Growth Medium. PhD diss., Cochin University of Science and Technology, 2013.

Thampan, P.K. Hand Book on Coconut Palm, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, 15, pp. 260-274, 1991.

Fontenele, R.E.S., Coconut Culture in Brazil: Current Market Characterization and Future Prospects, In: XLIII Congress of Sober. Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, , 2005. Available from: br/palestra/2/168.pdf (accessed 10 January 2013)

Ravindranath, D.A. & Radhakrishnan, S., Coir Pith -Wealth from Waste -A Reference, Published on the Occasion of the India International Coir Fair 2016, Coimbatore, Coir Board, (Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises, Govt. of India), 2016.

Brasileiro, G.A.M., Vieira, J.A.R. & Barreto, L.S., Use of Coir Pith Particles in Composites with Portland Cement, Journal of Environmental Management, 131, pp. 228-238, 2013.

Koňáková, D., Vejmelková, E., Čáchová, M., Siddique, J.A, Polozhiy, K., Reiterman, P., Keppert, M. & Černý, R., Treated Coconut Coir Pith as Component of Cementitious Materials, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2015, Article ID 264746, 8 pages, 2015.

Raveendran, G. & James, S.C., Strength Characteristics of Cement-Coir Pith Composite and Cement-Coir Pith-Glass Powder Composite: Soft ground Arresting System, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 4(4), pp. 1779-1783, 2017.

Sangeetha, M., Nivetha, V., Jothish, S., Gopal, R.M. & Sarathivelan, T., An Experimental Investigation on Energy Efficient Lightweight Light Translucent Concrete, Int. J. Sci. Res. Dev., 3(2), pp. 127-130, 2015.

Vejmelková, E., Koňáková, D., Krojidlová, A., Hovorková, V., Čáchová, M., Reiterman, P., & Černý, Properties of Cement Composites Containing Coir Pith, Advanced Materials Research, 982, pp. 136-140, 2014.

Shetty, M.S., Concrete, S. Chand & Company LTD, 2005.

53 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement, IS 12269: 2013, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2013.

Bureau of Indian Standards, Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design Proportioning, IS 10262:2009, New Delhi, 2009.

Bureau of Indian Standards, Methods of Physical Tests for Hydraulic Cement, Part 5: Determination of Initial and Final Setting Times, IS: 4031 (Part 5) – 1988, New Delhi, 1988.

Bureau of Indian Standards, Methods of Sampling and Analysis of Concrete, IS 1199:1959, New Delhi, 1959.

Bureau of Indian Standards, Method of Tests for Strength of Concrete, IS 516: 1959, New Delhi, 1959.

Bureau of Indian Standards, Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete -Method of Test, IS 5816: 1999, New Delhi, 1999.

Bureau of Indian Standards, Non-destructive Testing of Concrete – Methods of Test, Part 1: Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, IS13311 (Part 1), New Delhi, 1999-28,1992.

Amin, N., Use of Bagasse Ash in Concrete and its Impact on the Strength and Chloride Resistivity, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 23(5), pp. 717-720, 2010.

Chusilp, N., Jaturapitakkul, C. & Kiattikomol, K., Utilization of Bagasse Ash as a Pozzolanic Material in Concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 23(11), pp. 3352-3358, 2009.

Ganesan, K., Rajagopal, K. & Thangavel, K., Evaluation of Bagasse Ash as Supplementary Cementitious Material, Cement and Concrete Composites, 29(6), pp. 515-524, 2007.

ASTM C618-08, Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008,



  • There are currently no refbacks.