Overcoming Alignment Problem in Non-Identical Mathematical Support Visual Cryptography Schemes

Ari Moesriami Barmawi, Widhian Bramantya


An important problem in visual cryptography is the alignment problem. Although Liu, et al. have proposed a method for aligning the shares, there is still a problem with the non-identical mathematical support visual cryptography schemes. For overcoming this problem, the Three-Orthogonal-Point (3OP) method is proposed in this paper. Based on the experimental result it was proven that it can overcome the alignment problem, while the time complexity for aligning the shares is decreased significantly from O((m×A)2) to O(m×AI), for AI < A. The security is maintained, since an attacker cannot obtain any information related to the secret image.


alignment problem; decoding; encoding; orthogonal points; non-identical mathematical support; visual cryptography.

Full Text:



Hegde, C., Manu, S., P Deepa Shenoy, P.D., Venugopal, K.R. & Patnaik, L.M., Secure Authentication Using Image Processing and Visual Cryptography for Banking Applications, in16th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communications, pp. 65-72, 2008.

Ching-Sheng, H. & Shu-Fen T. Digital Watermarking Scheme with Visual Cryptography, in International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists, pp. 659-662, 2008.

Liu, F., Wu, C.K. & Lin, X.J., The Alignment Problem of Visual Cryptography Schemes, Designs, Codes and Cryptography, 50(2), pp. 215-227, 2009.

Naor, M. & Shamir, A., Visual Cryptography, in EUROCRYPT’94, pp. 1-12, 1995.

Chow, Y., Susilo, W. & Wong, D.S., Enhancing the Perceived Visual Quality of a Size Invariant Visual Cryptography Scheme, in Information and Communications Security, pp. 10-21, 2012.

Naor, M. & Pinkas, P., Visual Authentication and Identification, in CRYPTO’97, pp. 322-336, 1997.

Stinson, D., Visual Cryptography and Threshold Schemes, IEEE Potentials, 18(1), pp. 13-16, 1999.

Machizaud, J., Chavel, P. & Fournel, T., Fourier-based Automatic Alignment for Improved Visual Cryptography Schemes, Optics Express, 19(23), pp. 14-15, 2011.

Liu, F. & Yan, W.Q., Visual Cryptography for Image Processing and Security, Springer International Publishing, pp. 23-61., 2014.

Weir, J. & Yan, W. Resolution Variant Visual Cryptography for Street View of Google Maps, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 1695-1698, 2010.

Yan, W., Duo J. & Kankanhalli, M.S., Visual Cryptography for Print and Scan Applications, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 572-575, 2004.

Yang, C.N., Chen, T.S., Size-adjustable Visual Secret Sharing, Science, E88-A(9), pp. 2471-2474, 2005.

Ateniese, G., Blundo, C., Santis, A.D. & Stinson, D.R., Extended Capabilities for Visual Cryptography. ACM Theory of Computer Science, 250(1-2), pp. 143-161, 2001.

Jin, D., Progressive Color Visual Cryptography, School of Computing, Masters Thesis, NUS, 2003.

Chen, Y.F., Chan, Y.K., Huang, C.C., Tsai, M.H., Chu, Y.P., A Multiple-level Visual Secret-sharing Scheme Without Image Size Expansion, Information Sciences 177, pp. 4696-4710, 2007.

Krawczyk, H. & Rabin, T., Chameleon Hashing and Signatures, IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, retrieved on 12 Janaury 2017, from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=,1998.

Floyd, R. & Steinberg, L., An Adaptive Algorithm for Special Grayscale, in Proc. of the Soc. for Information Display, pp. 75-77, 1976.

Dumas, J., Roch, J., Tannier, É. & Varrette, S., Foundations of Coding: Compression, Encryption, Error Correction, John Wiley & Sons, 2015.

Shannon, C.E., A Mathematical Theory of Communication, Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 5(1), pp. 3-55, 2001.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fitbj.ict.res.appl.2018.12.1.6


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Contact Information:

ITB Journal Publisher, LPPM – ITB, 

Center for Research and Community Services (CRCS) Building Floor 7th, 
Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia,

Tel. +62-22-86010080,

Fax.: +62-22-86010051;

e-mail: jictra@lppm.itb.ac.id.