Performance Comparison of LEACH and LEACH-C Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) draw the attention of researchers due to the diversity of applications that use them. Basically, a WSN comprises many sensor nodes that are supplied with power by means of a small battery installed in the node itself; the node can also be self-charged by a solar cell. Sometimes it is impossible to change the power supply of battery-operated nodes. This dictates that sensor nodes must utilize the energy they have in an optimal manner. Data communication is the main cause of energy dissipation. In this context, designing protocols for WSNs demands more attention to the design of energy-efficient routing protocols that allow communications between sensor nodes and their base station (BS) with the least cost. LEACH is a prominent hierarchical cluster-based routing protocol. It groups sensor nodes into clusters to reduce energy dissipation. On the other hand, LEACH-C is a protocol based on LEACH that claims to improve energy dissipation over LEACH. In this paper, a successful attempt was made to compare these two protocols using MATLAB. The results show that LEACH-C has better performance than LEACH in terms of power dissipation.
Gautam, G. & Sen, B., Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network in NS2, International Journal of Computer Applications, 113(16), pp. 14-16, 2015.
Ganeshkumar, P., Vijayakumar, K.P. & Anandaraj, M., A Novel Jammer Detection Framework for Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2016:35(1), 2016.
Fahim, H., Javaid, N., Khan, Z.A., Qasim, U., Javed, S., Hayat, A., Iqbal, Z. & Rehman, G., Bio-inspired Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks, in 2015 9th International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS), 2015.
Bhalla, M., Pandey, N. & Kumar, B., Security Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks, in 2015 International Conference on Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT), 2015.
Ferng, H-W., Tendean, R. & Kurniawan, A., Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Static Clustering and Dynamic Structure, Wireless Personal Communications, 65(2), pp. 347-367, 2012.
Mann, R.P., Namuduri, K.R. & Pendse, R., Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2005(5), pp. 635-644, 2005.
Mondal, R.K. & Sarddar, D., Data-Centric Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey, COMPUSOFT, An international journal of advanced computer technology, 3(2), pp. 593-598, 2014.
Manap, Z., Ali, B.M., Ng, C.K., Noordin, N.K. & Sali, A., A Review on Hierarchical Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks, Wireless Personal Communications, 72(2), pp. 1077-1104, 2013.
Cho,Y. & Jung, J., Virtual Protocol Stack for WSN Simulators, ACM SIGAPP Applied Computing Review, 11(1), pp. 7-13, 2010.
Abrardo., Balucanti, L. & Mecocci, A., A Game Theory Distributed Approach for Energy Optimization in WSNs, ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN), 9(4,) pp. 1-22, 2013.
Singh, S.K., Singh, M.P. & Singh, D.K., Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks – A Survey, International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey (IJCSES), 1(2), pp. 63-83, 2010.
Saad, E., Awadalla, M. & Darwish, R., Adaptive and Energy-Efficient Clustering Architecture for Dynamic Sensor Networks, International Journal of Computers and Applications, 31(4), pp. 282-289, 2011.
Nayak, P. & Shree, P., Comparison of Routing Protocols in WSN using NetSim Simulator: LEACH Vs LEACH-C, International Journal of Computer Applications, 106(11), pp. 1-6, 2014.
Geetha, V., Kallapur, P. & Tellajeera, S., Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks: Performance Comparison of LEACH & LEACH-C Protocols Using NS2, in 2nd International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Information Technology (C3IT-2012), 2012.
Xinhua, W. & Sheng, W., Performance Comparison of LEACH and LEACH-C Protocols by NS2, 2010 Ninth International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Applications to Business, Engineering and Science, pp. 254-258, 2010.
Zhao, F., Xu, Y. & Li, R., Improved LEACH Routing Communication Protocol for a Wireless Sensor Network, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 8(12), 2012.
Omari, M. & Laroui, S., Simulation, Comparison and Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks Protocols: LEACH, LEACH-C, LEACH-1R, and HEED, 2015 4th International Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), 2015.
Johnson, D.B. & Maltz, D.A., Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, in Mobile Computing, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 153-181, 1996.
Biradar, R.V., Patil, V.C, Sawant, S.R. & Mudholkar, R.R., Classification and Comparison of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks, Special Issue on Ubiquitous Computing Security Systems, 4, pp. 704-711, 2009.
Sharma, N. & Verma, V., Heterogeneous LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications, 5(1), pp. 1825-1829, 2013.
Younis, O. & Fahmy, S., HEED: A Hybrid, Energy-Efficient, Distributed Clustering Approach for Ad Hoc Sensor Networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 3(4), pp. 366-379, 2004.
Kao, C.C., Yeh, C.N. & Lai, Y.T., Low-Energy Cluster Head Selection for Clustering Communication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network, International Journal of Computers and Applications, 33(1), pp. 9-14, 2011.
Pramanick, M., Chowdhury, C., Basak, P., Al-Mamun, M.A. & Neogy, S., An Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, in 2015 Applications and Innovations in Mobile Computing (AIMoC), 2015.
Panchal, S., Raval, G. & Pradhan, S.N., Optimization of Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Identical Clustering, International Conference on Advances in Communication, Network, and Computing, 2010.
Heinzelman, W.R., Chandrakasan, A. & Balakrishnan, H., Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks, in 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2000.
Heinzelman, W.B., Chandrakasan, A. & Balakrishnan, H., An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, 1(4), pp. 660-670, 2002.
Khediri, S.E., Nasria, N., Weic, A. & Kachourid, A., A New Approach for Clustering in Wireless Sensors Networks Based on LEACH, Procedia Computer Science, 32, pp. 1180-1185, 2014.
Peng, Z.R., Yin, H., Dong, H.T. & Li, H., LEACH Protocol Based Two-Level Clustering Algorithm, International Journal of Hybrid Information Technology, 8(10), pp.15-26, 2015.
Muruganathan, S.D., Ma, D.C.F., Bhasin, R.I. & Fapojuwo, A.O., A Centralized Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, 43(4), pp. S8-S13, 2005.
Sindhwani, N. & Vaid, R., V Leach: An Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for WSN, Mechanica Confab, 2(2), pp. 79-84, 2013.
Information Sciences Institute, The Network Simulator-ns2. Available from: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns, retrieved on September 10th, 2018.
NSNAM Team, The Network Simulator-ns3. Available from: http://www.nsnam.org/docs/release/3.14/tutorial/singlehtml/index.html, Retrieved on September 10th, 2018.
MATLAB website www.mathworks.co, Retrieved on September 10th, 2018.
Varga, A. & Hornig, R., An Overview of the Omnet++ Simulation Environment, in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference On Simulation Tools and Techniques for Communications, Networks and Systems & Workshops, ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), Article No. 60, 2008.
Tran, O., Kim, T., Nguyen, V.D. & Hong, C.S., Which Network Simulation Tool is Better for Simulating Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network, Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society, 41, pp. 930-932, 2014.
Nayyar, A. & Singh, R., A Comprehensive Review of Simulation Tools for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Journal of Wireless Networking and Communications, p-ISSN: 2167-7328 e-ISSN: 2167-7336, 5(1), pp.19-47, 2015.
Singh, C.P., Vyas, O.P., & Tiwari, M.K., A Survey of Simulation in Sensor Networks, in CIMCA '08 Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence for Modelling Control & Automation, pp. 867-872, 2008.
Prowler Website http://www.isis.vanderbilt.edu/projects/nest/prowler/ , Retrieved on September 10th, 2018.Piccsim Website http://wsn.aalto.fi/ en/tools/piccsim/, Retrieved on September 10th, 2018.
Labview Website: www.ni.com/labview/, Retrieved on September 10th, 2018.
- There are currently no refbacks.
ITB Journal Publisher, LPPM – ITB,
Center for Research and Community Services (CRCS) Building Floor 7th,
Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia,