Reconstruction of Sea Surface Temperature Data based on the Sr/Ca of Porites Coral in Ambon Bay

Corry Corvianawatie, Sri Yudawati Cahyarini, Mutiara Rachmat Putri

Abstract


Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data can be used to understand oceanography dynamics in Ambon Bay. However, a lack of continual and long time series in-situ SST data limited this study. To overcome this problem, the Sr/Ca composition in Porites coral taken from Outer Ambon Bay was used to reconstruct SST. The coral sample was sub-sampled monthly and analyzed using ICP-OES. Subsequently, the anchor point method was used to develop the chronology of the coral Sr/Ca based on ERSST v3b data. The regression equation results were Sr/Ca = -0.059 x SST + 10.32 (r = -0.699, n = 95, p < 0.05). The reconstructed SST based on these results was verified by in-situ data from May to November 2008. The difference was found to be 1.2-2.5 °C (σ = 0.05%). This results lead us to conclude that coral Sr/Ca reflects SST variation in Ambon Bay well. Based on the reconstructed SST, we found that the SST in Ambon Bay experiences an extreme seasonal variation, which is highly correlated to air temperature, wind speed, and length of sun radiation. Ambon Bay also experiences SST anomalies in some periods, which are dominantly affected by local atmospheric conditions rather than ENSO phenomena.


Keywords


Ambon Bay; coral Sr/Ca; oceanography dynamics; porites; sea surface temperature reconstruction

Full Text:

(PDF)

References


Basit, A., Mudjiono & Putri, M.R., Ambon Bay Physical Oceanographic Monitoring, Prosiding Pertemuan Ilmiah Tahunan ISOI 2008, pp. 41-47, 2008. (Text in Indonesian)

Boely, T., Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P., Potier, M. & Nurhakim, S., Seasonal and Interannual Variations of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Banda and Arafura Sea Area, Netherland Journal of Sea Research, 25(4), pp. 425-429, 1990.

Zijlstra, J.J., Baars, M.A., Tijssen, S.B., Wetsteyn, F.J., Witte, J.I.J., Ilahude, A.G. & Hadikusumah, Monsoonal Effects on the Hydrography of the Upper Waters (<300m) of the Eastern Banda Sea and Northern Arafura with Special Reference to Vertical Transport Processes, Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 25(4), pp. 431-447, 1990. DOI:10.1016/0077-7579(90)90068-R.

Ilahude, A.G. & Nontji, A., Indonesian Oceanography and Global Climate Change (El Niño and La Niña), Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Oseanologi Jakarta, pp. 1-13, 1999. (Text in Indonesian)

Suharsono, Condition of Coral Reef Resource in Indonesia, Jurnal Pesisir dan Lautan, 1(2), pp. 44-52, 1998.

Cahyarini, S.Y., Pfeiffer, M. & Prayudi, D., Sea Surface Temperature Variability based on Coral Chemistry, Teknologi Indonesia, 32(2), pp. 115-120, 2009. (Text in Indonesian)

Cahyarini, S.Y., Pferiffer, M. & Dullo, W.C., Improving SST Reconstruction from Coral Sr/Ca Records: Multiple Corals from Tahiti (French Polynesia), International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geol Rundsch), 98(1), pp. 31-40, 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s00531-008-0323-2.

Marshall, J.F. & McCulloch, M.T., An Assessment of the Sr/Ca Ratio in Shallow Water Hermatypic Corals as a Proxy for Sea Surface Temperature, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66(18), pp. 3262-3280, 2002, DOI:10.1016/S0016-7037(02)00926-2.

Mitsuguchi, T., Dang, P.X., Kitagawa, H., Uchida, T. & Shibata, Y., Coral Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca records in Con Dao Island off the Mekong Delta: Assessment of Their Potential for Monitoring ENSO and East Asian Monsoon, Global and Planetary Change, 63(4), pp. 341-352, 2008, DOI:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.08.002.

Cahyarini, S.Y., Pfeiffer, M., Timm, O., Dullo, W.C. & Schönberg, D.G., Reconstructing Seawater δ18O Form Paired Coral δ18O and Sr/Ca Ratios: Methods, Error Analysis and Problems, with Examples from Tahiti (French Polynesia) and Timor (Indonesia), Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72(12), pp. 2841-2853, 2008, DOI:10.1016/j.gca.2008.04.005.

Hernawan, I., Reconstruction of Salinity Data Based on Coral δ18O and Temperature Model Case Study: Bunaken and Padang Bai (Indonesia), Undergraduate Theses, Oceanography Study Program, Bandung Institute of Technology, 2012. (Text in Indonesian)

Cahyarini, S.Y., Pfeiffer, M., Nurhati, I.S., Aldrian, E., Dullo, W.C. & Hetzinger, S., Twentieth Century Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity Variation at Timor Inferred from Paired Coral δ18O and Sr/Ca Measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 119(7), pp. 4593-4604, 2014, DOI: 10.1002/2013JC009594.

Klein, R. & Loya, Y., Skeletal Growth and Density Patterns of Two Porites Corals from the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 77, pp. 253-259, 1991.

de Villiers, S., Shen, G.T., & Nelson, B.K., The Sr/Ca Temperature Relationship in Coralline Aragonite: Influence of Variability in (Sr/Ca) Seawater and Skeletal Growth Parameters, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58(1), pp. 197-208, 1994.

Smith, T.M., Reynolds, R.W., Peterson, T.C., & Lawrimore, J., Improvements to NOAA’s Historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880-2006), Journal of Climate, 21, pp. 2283-2296, 2008, DOI:10.1175/2007JCLI2100.1.

Carton, J.A. & Giese, B.S., SODA: A Reanalysis of Ocean Climate, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic, University of Maryland, 2005.

Research Center for Deep Sea, Ambon Bay Monitoring Data, Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI), 2008. (Text in Indonesian)

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Leetmaa, A., Reynolds, R., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, E., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K.C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Jenne, R. & Joseph, D., The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77, pp. 437-470, 1996, DOI:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.

Ambon Meteorological Station, Weather Monitoring Data at Ambon, Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (BMKG), 2012. (Text in Indonesian)

Corvianawatie, C., Cahyarini, S.Y. & Putri, M.R., The Effect of Changes in Sea Surface Temperature on Linear Growth of Porites Coral in the Ambon Bay, AIP Conference Proceeding of The 5th International Conference on Mathematic and Natural Sciences, 1677, pp. 060008–1-060008–4, 2015, DOI:10.1063/1.4930688.

Paillard, D., Labeyrie, L. & Yiou, P., Macintosh program performs time-series analysis, Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 77: 379, 1996.

Lea, D.W., Elemental and Isotopic Proxies of Past Ocean Temperatures, The Ocean and Marine Geochemistry, 6, pp. 366-385, 2004.

Marshall, J., Scott, J.R., Armour, K.C., Campin, J-M., Kelley, M. & Romanou, A., The Ocean’s Role in the Transient Response of Climate to Abrupt Greenhouse Gas Forcing, Climate Dynamics, 44(7), pp 2287-2299, 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-014-2308-0.

Riantika, S., Identification of Water Mass at Ambon Bay, Undergraduate Theses, Oceanography Study Program, Bandung Institute of Technology, 2011. (Text in Indonesian)

Wang, H., Kumar, A. & Wang, W., Timescale of Oceanic Response to ENSO Estimated from Simulations with NCEP Climate Forecast System, NOAA’s 37th Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, Fort Collins, Colorado, 2012.

Climate Prediction Center – National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Cold & Warm Episodes by Season, 2015.

Dijkstra, H.A., The ENSO Phenomenon: Theory and Mechanism, Advances in Geosciences, 6, pp. 3-15, 2006.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fj.math.fund.sci.2016.48.2.3

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


View my Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.