In Vitro Regeneration of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) cv. Buru Hotong

Iriawati Iriawati, Melisa Puspita, Asep Rodiansyah


In vitro regeneration of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) was done using basal shoot explants of 10-day old seedlings. Explants were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid  (2,4-D), kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1.5 ppm NiSO4. Shoot multiplication and root induction were done in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media. Plantlets were then acclimatized in rice husk charcoal, cocopeat, or mixed media. Results showed that MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm kinetin, 2 ppm BAP, and 0.1 ppm 2,4-D was the optimal medium for shoot induction, in which 60% of explants developed direct shoot organogenesis. In addition, callus was optimally formed in MS medium supplemented by 1 ppm kinetin, 1 ppm BAP, and 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. Regenerated shoots spontaneously developed roots after being transferred into MS basal media without growth regulator. During acclimatization, the highest survival rate of plantlets (47%) was obtained in rice husk charcoal. The developed method could be useful towards improvement of this species using in vitro tissue culture techniques.


2,4-D; BAP; foxtail millet; kinetin; plant regeneration

Full Text:



Brink, M., Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. In: Cereals and Pulses, Plant Resources of Tropical Africa, Backhuys Publishers, Netherlands, Wageningen, 2006.

Wibowo, S.E., Instant Noodle Production from Buru Hotong (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) and Expiring Date Prediction of Hotong Instant Noodle using Acceleration Method, Thesis, Bogor Agricultural Institute, Bogor, 2008. (Text in Indonesian)

Food and Agriculture Organization, Sorghum and Millets in Human Nutrition, FAO Food and Nutrition Series, No. 27. Rome, pp. 49-86, 1995. ISBN 92-5-103381-1

Rout, G.R., Samantaray, S. & Das, P., The Role of Nickel on Somatic Embryogenesis in Setaria italica L. in vitro, Euphytica, 101(3), pp. 319-324, 1998. DOI: 10.1023/A:1018386912104

Osuna-Avila, P., Nava-Credillo, A., Jofre-Garfias, A.E., & Cabrera-Ponce, J.L., Plant Regeneration from Shoot Apex Explants of Foxtail Millet, Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult., 40(1), pp. 33-35, 1995. DOI:10.1007/BF00041115

Reddy, L.A. & Vaidyanath, K., Callus Formation and Regeneration in Two Induced Mutant of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica), J. Genet. Breed., 44(2), pp. 133-138, 1990.

Murashige, T. & Skoog, F., A Revised Medium for Rapid Growth and Bioassay with Tobacco Tissue Culture. Physiol Plant, 15(3), pp. 473-495, 1962. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x

Zhao, J., Morozova, N., Williams, L., Libs, L., Avivi, Y. & Grafi, G., Two Phases of Chromatin Decondensation during Dedifferentiation of Plant Cells: Distinction between Competence for Cell Fate Switch and A Commitment for S Phase, J. Biol. Chem., 276(2), pp. 22772-22778, 2001. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M101756200.

Van Staden, J., Zazimalova, E. & George, E.F., Plant Growth Regulators II: Cytokinin, their analogues and antagonist, in Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture, eds. George, E.F., Hall, M.A. & De Klerk G-J. Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 205-226, 2008.

Gaba, V.P., Plant Growth Regulator. In R.N. Trigianoand D.J. Gray (eds.) Plant Tissue Culture and Development, CRC Press. London, 2005.

Tang, W. & Newton, R.J., Increase of Polyphenol Oxidase and Decrease of Polyamines Correlate with Tissue Browning in Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana Mill), Plant Sci., 167(3), pp. 621-628, 2004. DOI:10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.05.024.

Armini, N.M., Wattimena, G.A. & Gunawan, L.W., Plant Propagation: Plant Biotechnology, Laboratory of Plant Tissue Culture, Bogor Agricultural Institute, 1992. (Text in Indonesian).

Gunawan, L.W., Plant Tissue Culture Technique, Inter University Center for Biotechnology, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, 1992. (Text in Indonesian).

Close, K.R. & Gallagher-Ludeman, L.A., Structure-activity Relationships of Auxin-like Plant Growth Regulators and Genetic Influences on the Culture Induction Responses in Maize (Zea mays L.), Plant Science, 61(2), pp. 245-252, 1989. DOI:10.1016/0168-9452(89)90231-8

Su, Y-H, Liu, Y-B. & Zhang, X-S., Auxin-Cytokinin Interaction Regulates Meristem Development, Mol. Plant, 4(4), pp.616-625, 2011. DOI:10.1093/mp/ssr007

Alizadeh, H., Naghavi, M.R., Omidi, M. & Saatian, B., Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Direct Shoot Regeneration of Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress, Australia, 2004.

Marín-Méndez, W., Sanchéz-Chacón, E., Gatica-Arias, A.M., Ramírez-Fonseca, P., Freer-Bustamante, E. & Valdez-Melara, M., Ultrastructure and Histology of Organogenesis Induced from Shoot Tips of Maize (Zea mays, Poaceae), Int. J. Trop. Biol., 57(Suppl. 1), pp. 129-139, 2009. DOI:10.15517/rbt.v57i0.21290

Liu, G. & Bao, M., Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from in vitro Cultured Leaves of London Plane Tree (Plantanus acerifolia Willd.), Plant. Cell. Rep., 21(7), pp. 640-644, 2003. DOI:10.1007/s00299-002-0569-2

Shen, X., Indirect Shoot Organogenesis and Selection of Somaclonal Variation in Dieffenbachia, Ph.D Dissertation, University of Florida, Florida, 2007.

Sugiyama, M., Organogenesis in vitro, Curr. Op in.Plant Biol., 2(1), 61-64, 1999. DOI:10.1016/S1369-5266(99)80012-0

Che, P., Gingerich, D.J., Lall, S. & Howell, S.H., Global Hormone and Cytokinin-related Gene Expression Changes during Shoot Development in Arabidopsis, Plant Cell. 14(11), pp. 2771-2785, 2002.

Saeed, N.A., Zafar, Y. & Malik, K.A., A Simple Procedure of Gossypium Meristem Shoot Tip Culture, Plant Cell, Tissue and Org. Cult. 51, pp. 201-207. 1997. DOI:10.1023/A:1005958812583

Taha, H., Bakheet, S. & Saker, M., Factors Affecting in vitro Multiplication of Date Palm, Biologia Plantarum, 44(3), pp. 431-433, 2001. DOI:10.1023/A:1012423601467

Lomax, T.L. Muday, G.K. & Rubery, P.H., Auxin Transport, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 509-530, 1995. DOI:10.1007/978-94-011-0473-9_24

Santoso & Nursandi, Plant Tissue Culture, University of Muhammadiyah Malang Publ., 2002. (Text in Indonesian)



  • There are currently no refbacks.

View my Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


ITB Journal Publisher, LPPM ITB, Center for Research and Community Services (CRCS) Building, 6th & 7th Floor, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia, Phone: +62-22-86010080, Fax.: +62-22-86010051; E-mail: