Disruption of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches by Microwave-assisted Oxalic Acid Pretreatment

Nissa Nurfajrin Solihat, Fahriya Puspita Sari, Lucky Risanto, Sita Heris Anita, Fitria Fitria, Widya Fatriasari, Euis Hermiati

Abstract


Developing an effective pretreatment for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is an important effort in reducing the cost of this process. Microwave-assisted pretreatment is considered a green technology that can effectively break down lignocellulosic structures. The objective of this study was to investigate the most effective temperature for microwave-assisted oxalic acid pretreatment regarding the structural characteristic changes of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) fibers. The fibers were subjected to microwave-assisted oxalic acid pretreatment at 160–200 °C with 2.5 minutes heating time and a liquid to solid ratio of 10. The effectiveness of the pretreatment was determined based on its delignification selectivity, morphological characteristics, and functional group changes. Microwave irradiation of OPEFB fibers at 180 ºC was effective in increasing the cellulose content by 24%. This pretreatment resulted in 1.82 delignification selectivity. More than 50% of the hemicellulose of the OPEFB was removed after this treatment, which was confirmed by a decrease of the absorption bands of functional groups at 1732 cm-1. The increase of pretreatment temperature disrupted the morphological structure of the OPEFB and removed its hemicellulose but did not change its functional groups and lignin content.

 


Keywords


changes of structural characteristics; oil palm empty fruit bunches; functional groups; microwave-assisted oxalic acid pretreatment; temperature

Full Text:

PDF

References


Wright, R.T. & Wiyono, I.E., Report on USDA Foreign Agricultural Service: Indonesia Oilseeds and Products Annual, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), http://gain.fas.usda.gov/ Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Oilseeds%20and%20Products%20Annual_Jakarta_Indonesia_3-17-2014.pdf, (17 March 2014).

Ibrahim, M.F., Razak, M.N.A., Phang, L.Y., Hassan, M.A. & Abd-Aziz, S., Crude Cellulase from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Trichoderma Asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 for Fermentable Sugars Production, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 170(6), pp. 1320-1335, 2013.

Anita, S.H., Risanto, L., Hermiati, E. & Fatriasari, W., Pretreatment of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Using Microwave Irradiation, in 3rd International Symposium of Indonesian Wood Research Society, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, pp. 348-354, 2011.

Gong, G., Liu, D. & Huang, Y., Microwave-Assisted Organic Acid Pretreatment for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Rice Straw, Biosyst. Eng., 107(2), pp. 67-73, 2010.

Kärcher, M.A., Iqbal, Y., Lewandowski, I. & Senn, T., Comparing The Performance of Miscanthus X Giganteus and Wheat Straw Biomass in Sulfuric Acid Based Pretreatment, Bioresource Technol., 180, pp. 360-364, 2015.

Scordia, D., Cosentino, S.L., & Jeffries, T.W., Effectiveness of Dilute Oxalic Acid Pretreatment of Miscanthus 3 Giganteus Biomass for Ethanol Production, Biomass and Bioenergy, 9, pp. 540-548, 2013.

Li, Z., Fei, B. & Jiang, Z., Comparison of Dilute Organic and Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bamboo, BioResources, 9(3) , pp. 5652-5661, 2014.

Deng, A., Ren, J., Wang, W., Li, H., Lin, Q., Yan, Y., Sun, R. & Liu, G., Production of Xylo-Sugars from Corncob by Oxalic Acid-Assisted Ball Milling and Microwave-Induced Hydrothermal Treatments, Ind. Crop. Prod., 79, pp. 137-145, 2016.

Hermiati, E., Tsubaki, S. & Azuma, J., Cassava Pulp Hydrolysis under Microwave Irradiation with Oxalic Acid Catalyst for Ethanol Production, J. Math. Fund. Sci, 46(2), pp. 125-139, 2014.

TAPPI, TAPPI T 264 cm-07 Preparation of Wood for Chemical Analysis, 1997.

TAPPI, TAPPI Test Method T 211 om-02 Ash in Wood, Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard: Combustion at 525 ºC, 2002.

TAPPI, TAPPI Test Method T 204 cm-97 Solvent Extractives of Wood and Pulp, 1997.

Templeton, D. & Ehrman, T., Determination of Acid Insoluble Lignin in Biomass, Laboratory Analytical Procedure No. 003, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado, USA, 1995

Wise, L.E., Murphy, M. & Addieco, Chlorite holocellulose, Its Fractionation and Bearing on Summative Wood Analysis and on Studies on the Hemicelluloses, Pap. Trade J., 122(2), pp. 35-43, 1946.

Rowell, R.M., Pettersen, R., Han, J.S., Rowell, J.S. & Tshabalala, M.A., Chapter 3: Cell Wall Chemistry in Handbook Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites, 1st ed., CRC Press, pp. 71-72, CRC Press, 2005.

Sjöström, E., Wood Chemistry : Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd ed., Academic Press, California, USA, pp. 63-67, 1993.

Kumar, P., Barrett, D.M., Delwiche, M.J. & Stroeve, P., Methods for Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Efficient Hydrolysis and Biofuel Production, Ind. Eng. Chem., 48(8), pp. 3713-3729, 2009.

de Carvalho, D.M., Sevastyanova, O., Penna, L.S., da Silva, B.P., Lindstrom, M.E. & Colodette, J.L., Assessment of Chemical Transformations in Eucalyptus, Sugarcane Bagasse, and Straw during Hydrothermal, Dilute Acid, and Alkaline Pretreatments, Ind. Crop. Prod., 73, pp. 118-126, 2015.

Tan, L., Yu, Y., Li, X., Zhao, J., Qu, Y., May, Y. & Kheang, S., Pretreatment of Empty Fruit Bunch from Oil Palm for Fuel Ethanol Production and Proposed Biorefinery Process, Bioresource Technol., 135, pp. 275-282, 2013.

Jung, Y.H., Kim, I.J., Kim, H.K. & Kim, K.H., Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Lignocellulose for Whole Slurry Ethanol Fermentation, Bioresource Technol., 132, pp. 109-114, 2013.

Fatriasari, W., Syafii, W., Wistara, N.J., Syamsu, K. & Prasetya, B., The Characteristic Changes of Betung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) Pretreated by Fungal Pretreatment, Int. J. Renew. Energy Dev., 3(2), pp. 133-143, 2014.

Gao, J., Yang, X., Wan, J., He, Y., Chang, C., Ma, X. & Bai, J., Delignification Kinetics of Corn Stover with Aqueous Ammonia Soaking Pretreatment, BioResources, 11(1), pp. 2403-2416, 2016.

Chen, W., Tu, Y. & Sheen, H., Disruption of Sugarcane Bagasse Lignocellulosic Structure by Means of Dilute Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment with Microwave-Assisted Heating, Appl. Energy, 88(8), pp. 2726-2734, 2011.

Law, K., Daud, W.R.W. & Ghazali, A., Morphological and Chemical Nature of Fiber, BioResources, 2(3), pp. 351-362, 2007.

Yunus, R., Salleh, S.F., Abdullah, N., Radiah, D. & Biak, A., Effect of Ultrasonic Pre-Treatment on Low Temperature Acid Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch, Bioresource Technol., 101(24), pp. 9792-9796, 2010.

Fatriasari, W., Syafii, W., Wistara, N., Syamsu, K., Prasetya, B., Anita, S. H. & Risanto, L., Fiber Disruption of Betung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) by Combined Fungal and Microwave Pretreatment, Biotropia, 22(2), pp. 81-94, 2015.

Koutsianitis, D., Mitani, C., Giagli, K., Tsalagkas, D., Halász, K., Kolonics, O., Gallis, C. & Csóka, L., Properties of Ultrasound Extracted Bicomponent Lignocellulose Thin Films, Ultrason. Sonochemistry, 23, pp. 148-155, 2015.

Qing, Q., Huang, M., He, Y., Wang, L. & Zhang, Y., Dilute Oxalic Acid Pretreatment for High Total Sugar Recovery in Pretreatment and Subsequent Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 177(7), pp. 1493-1507, 2015.

Medina, J.D.C., Woiciechowski, A., Filho, A.Z., Nigam, P.S., Ramos, L.P. & Soccol, C.R., Steam Explosion Pretreatment of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) Using Autocatalytic Hydrolysis: A Biorefinery Approach, Bioresource Technol., 199, pp. 173-180, 2016.

Li, G., Hse, C. & Qin, T., Wood Liquefaction with Phenol by Microwave Heating and FTIR Evaluation, J. Forest. Res., 26(4), pp. 1043-1048, 2015.

Isroi, Ishola, M.M., Millati, R., Syamsiah, S., Cahyanto, M.N., Niklasson, C. & Taherzadeh, M.J., Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) After Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment, Molecules, 17, pp. 14995-15012, 2012.

Nelson, M.L. & Connor, R.T.O., Relation of Certain Infrared Bands to Cellulose Crystallinity and Crystal Lattice Type. Part 11. A New Infrared Ratio for Estimation of Crystallinity in Celluloses I and II, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 8, pp. 1325-1341, 1964.

Lee, J. W., Kim, J.Y., Jang, H.M., Lee, M.W. & Park, J.M., Sequential Dilute Acid and Alkali Pretreatment of Corn Stover: Sugar Recovery Efficiency and Structural Characterization, Bioresource Technol., 182, pp. 296-301, 2015.

Zhang, A., Liu, C., Sun, R. & Xie, J., Extraction, Purification, and Characterization of Lignin Fractions from Sugarcane Bagasse, BioResources, 8(2), pp. 1604-1614, 2013.

Kundu, C. & Lee, J., Optimization Conditions for Oxalic Acid Pretreatment of Deacetylated Yellow Poplar for Ethanol Production, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 32, pp. 298-304, 2015.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fj.math.fund.sci.2017.49.3.3

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.