Characteristics of Earthquake-Generated Tsunamis in Indonesia Based on Source Parameter Analysis

Sugeng Pribadi, A. Afnimar, Nanang T. Puspito, Gunawan Ibrahim

Abstract


We have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia, based on source parameter analysis. This includes the focal mechanism derived by W phase inversion analysis, the ratio (Θ) between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Most of the earthquakes (24 events) were tsunamigenic earthquakes with various fault types, a shallow focal depth (12 km ≤ D ≤ 77.8 km), a small to large magnitude (6.6 ≤ Mw ≤ 9.0), a low ratio of seismic energy to seismic moment (-5.8 < Θ < -4.9), a short to long rupture duration (27 s ≤ To ≤ 257 s), a small to large tsunami height (0.1 m ≤ H ≤ 50.9 m) and a short to long distance from the hypocenter to the trench (10 km < HT ≤ 230 km). Three tsunami earthquakes were characterized by a thrust fault mechanism, a very shallow depth (D ≤ 20 km), a moderate magnitude (7.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.8), a very low ratio of seismic energy to seismic moment (Θ ≤ -5.8), a long rupture duration (99 s ≤ To ≤ 135 s), a large tsunami height (7.4 m ≤ H ≤ 14 m) and a short distance from the hypocenter to the trench (HT ≤ 20 km).

Keywords


characteristics; tsunamigenic earthquake; tsunami earthquake; W phase; energy; moment; rupture

Full Text:

PDF

References


Latief, H., Puspito, N.T., & Imamura, Tsunami Catalog and Zones in Indonesia, J. Nat. Dis. Science, 22(1), Japan, 2000.

Puspito, N.T., Statistical Data of Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in the Indonesian Region, International Symposium on Earthquake and Precursor Proceeding, Puslitbang BMKG, Bukit Tinggi, 2009.

Fujii, Y. & Satake, K., Source of the July 2006 West Java Tsunami Estimated from Tide Gauge Records, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24317, doi: 10.1029/2006GL028049, 2006.

Convers, J.A. & Newman, A.V., Global Evaluation of Large Earthquake from 1997 Through Mid-2010, J. Geophys. Res., 116, B08304, 2011.

Ammon, C.J., Ji, C., Thio, H.K., Robinson, D., Ni, S., Hjorleifdottir, V., Kanamori, H., Lay, T., Das, S., Helmberger, D., Ichinose, G., Polet, J. & Wald, D., Rupture Process of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake, Science, 308, 2005.

Ammon, C.J., Kanamori, H., Lay, T. & Velasco, A.A., The July 2006 Java Tsunami Earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24308, doi: 10.1029/2006GL028005, 2006.

Satake, K. & Tanioka, Y., Sources of Tsunami and Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in Subduction Zones, Pure Appl. Geophys., 154, pp. 467-483, 0033–4553:99:040467–17, 1999.

Kanamori, H., Mechanism of Tsunami Earthquakes, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 11, pp. 312-332, 1972.

Polet, J., & Kanamori, H., Tsunami Earthquakes, Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Springer-Verlag 2009, Robert A. Meyers, 10.1007/978-0-387-30440-3_567, 2009.

Kanamori, H., W Phase, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(16), pp. 1691-1694, 1993.

Kanamori, H. & Rivera, L., Source Inversion of W-phase, Speeding Up Seismic Tsunami Warning, Geophys. J. Int., 175, pp. 222-238, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03887.x, 2008.

Handayani, T., W-Phase Analysis for Tsunami Warning, Master Thesis, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan, Building Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, MEE08175, Disaster Management Policy Program, 2009.

Newman, A. & Okal, E., Teleseismic Estimates of Radiated Seismic Energy: The E/M0 Discriminant for Tsunami Earthquakes, Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (B11): doi: 10.1029/98JB02236. ISSN: 0148-0227, 1998.

Polet, J. & Kanamori, H., Shallow Subduction Zone Earthquake, Geophys. J. Int., 142, pp. 684-702, 2000.

Lomax, A., Michelini, A., & Piatanesi, A., An Energy-Duration Procedure for Rapid Determination of Earthquake Magnitude and Tsunamigenic Potential, Geophys. J. Int., 170, pp. 1195-1209, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03469.x, 2007.

Newman, A., Hayes, G., Wei, Y. & Convers, J., The 25 October 2010 Sumatra Tsunami Earthquake from Real-Time Discriminants, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L05302, doi: 10.1029/2010GL046498, 2011.

Engdahl, E.R., van der Hilst, R., & Buland, R., Global Teleseismic Earthquake Relocation with Improved Travel Times and Procedures for Depth Determination, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 88, pp. 722-743, 1998.

Hayes, G.P., Rivera, L., & Kanamori, H., Source Inversion of the W-Phase: Realtime Implementation and Extension to Low Magnitudes, Seism. Res. Lett., 80(5), doi: 10.1785/gssrl.80.5.817, 2009.

Boatwright, J., & Choy, G., Teleseismic Estimates of Energy Radiated by Shallow Earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 91(B2), pp. 2095-2112, 1986.

Kanamori, H., The Energy Release in Great Earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 82, pp. 2981-2987, 1977.

Tsuboi, S., Abe, K., Takano, K., & Yamanaka, Y., Rapid Determination of Mw from Broadband P Waveforms, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 83, pp. 606-613, 1995.

Crotwell, H.P., Owens, T.J., & Ritsema, J., The Tau-P toolkit, Flexible Seismik Travel-Time & Ray-Path Utilities, Seism. Res. Lett., 70, pp. 154-160, 1999.

Bormann, P., Engdahl, B. & Kind, R., Seismic Wave Propagation and Earth models, New Manual of Seismology Observatory Practice (NMSOP-2), IASPEI, GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences, DOI: 10.2312/GFZ.NMSOP-2, pp.47-57, 2002.

Goldstein, P. & Snoke, A., SAC Availability for the IRIS Community, http://www.iris.edu/dms/newsletter/vol7/no1/sac-availability-for-the-iris-community, March 2005 (8 March 2013).

Shi, S., Dawson, A.G. & Smith, D.E., Geomorphological Impact of The Flores Tsunami of 12th December 1992, Tsuchiya, Y. & Shuto, N., Tsunami: Progress in Prediction, Disaster Prevention and Warning, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp. 187-195, 1995.

BMKG (Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika), Panduan Peringatan Dini Tsunami, BMKG (unpublished), pp. 7-35, 2010.

Bilek, S.L. & Lay, T., Tsunami Earthquake Possibly Widespread Manifestation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(14), 10.1029/2002GL015215, 2002.

Synolakis C., Imamura, F., Tsuji, Y., Matsutomi, H., Tinti, S., Cook, B., Chandra, Y.P. & Usman, M., Damage, Conditions of Java Tsunami of 1994 Analyzed, EOS, Trans. Am. Geoph. Union, 76(26), pp. 257-264, 1995.

Kanamori, H. & Brodsky, E.E., The Physics of Earthquake, Institute of Physics Publishing, Rep. Prog. Phys., 67, pp. 1429-1496, 2004.

Kawata, Y., Tsuji, Y., Syamsudin, A.R., Sunarjo, Matsuyama, M., Matsutomi, H., Imamura, F. & Takahashi, T., Response of Residents at The Moment of Tsunami-The 1992 Flores Island Earthquake Tsunami, Indonesia, Tsuchiya, Y. & Shuto, N., Tsunami: Progress in Prediction, Disaster Prevention and Warning, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp. 173-185, 1995.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fj.math.fund.sci.2013.45.2.8

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


View my Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.