Optimization of Fermented Tofu with High Isoflavone Content through Variation of Inoculum Percentages and Ratios of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides

Dea Indriani Astuti, Zahra Noviana


Tofu is a traditional food that can be found in several countries, such as Indonesia and Japan. Tofu is often made using the backslopping method, which brings the risk of pathogenic microorganism contamination and can lead to failure in production. Standardization of the production process is necessary in order to yield highly nutritious tofu that is safe to be consumed. In this research, standardization was investigated by variation of the inoculum percentages and ratios of Lactobacillus plantarum (a), Lactobacillus acidophilus (b), and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (c). The inoculum percentages used in this research were 7.5%, 10%, and 12.5%, while the inoculum ratios between a, b, and c were (a:b:c) 2:1:1; 1:2:1; 1:1:2; and 1:1:1. The optimum inoculum ages for a, b, and c were 8, 6, and 2 hours respectively. The highest growth rates of a, b, and c were 0.060h-1, 0.054h-1, and 0.092h-1 respectively. The highest lactic acid production rates of a, b, and c were 0.072%h-1, 0.063%h-1, and 0.126%h-1 respectively. The inoculum percentage and ratio that produced the highest isoflavones content was 12.5%(2:1:1), with the highest bacterial population growth rate being 0.019h-1, the highest formation rate of lactic acid being 0.045%h-1, and the isoflavone aglycones level being 0.445 mg/mL.


fermentation; isoflavone; lactic acid; lactic acid bacteria; tofu.

Full Text:



USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/4817 (22 June 2013).

Marathe, M.Y. & Ghosh, J.S., Study of Proteinase Activity of Lactobacillus Plantarum, Intern. Journal of Genetics and Molecular Bio, 1(1), pp. 1-5, 2009.

Florou-Paneri, P., Christaki, E. & Bonos, E. Lactic Acid Bacteria as Source of Functional Ingredients, http://www.intechopen.com /books/lactic-acid-bacteria-r-d-for-food-health-and-livestock-purposes/ lactic-acid-bacteria-as-source-of-functional-ingredients (1 June 2013).

Klein, K.O., Baron, J., Barnes, K.M., Pescovitz, O.H. & Cutler Jr., G.B., Use of An Ultrasensitive Recombinant Cell Bioassay to Determine Estrogen Levels in Girls with Precocious Puberty Treated with An LHRH Agonist, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 83(7), pp. 2387-9, 1998.

Xiao, C.W., Health Effects of Soy Protein and Isoflavones in Humans, J. Nutr., 138(6), pp. 12445-12495, 2008.

Barnes, S., Evolution of the Health Benefits of Soy Isoflavones, Exp. Biol. Med., 217(3), pp. 386-396, 1998.

Hendrich, S., Bioavailability of Isoflavones, J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci., 777(1-2), pp. 203-10, 2002.

Galvez, A., Abriouel, H., Lopez, R.L. & Omar, N.B., Bacteriosin-based Strategies for Food Biopreservation, Intern. J. of Food Microbiol., 120(1-2), pp. 51-70, 2007.

Marasco, R., Muscariello, L., Varacamonti, M., De Felice, M. & Sacco, M., Expression of the bglH Gene of Lactobacillus Plantarum is Controlled by Carbon Catabolite Repression, J. Bacteriol., 180(13), pp. 3400-4, 1998.

Otieno, D.O., Stability of Bioactivae Isoflavones anf Glycolytic Enzymes Produced By Probiotic Bacteria in Soy based Food During Processing and Storage, Thesis, School of Molecular Sciences, Victoria University, Werribee, Australia, 2007.

Gueguen, Y., Chemardin, P., Labrot, P., Arnaud, P. & Galzy, P., Purification and Characterization of an Intracellular β-glucosidase from a New Strain of Leuconostoc Mesenteroides Isolated from Cassava, J. Appl. Microbiol., 82(4), pp. 469-476, 1997.

Cappuccino, J.G. & Sherman, N., Microbiology a Laboratory Manual, 8th ed., Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, San Fransisco, CA, 2008.

Saksono, B., Triatna, L., Wulandari P.S. & Octavia, Y., Produksi Tahu Berisoflavon Tinggi., Laporan Teknik Kegiatan Penelitian Pusat Penelitian Bioteknologi, 2007.

Liew, R., Williams, J.K., Collins, P. & Macleod, K.T., Soy-Derived Isoflavones Exert Opposing Actions on Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 304(3), pp. 985-93, 2003.

Todorov, S.D. & Dicks, L.M., Characterization of Mesentericin ST99, a Bacteriocin Produced by Leuconostoc Mesenteroides Subsp. Dextranicum ST99 Isolated from Boza, J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 31(7), pp. 323-9, 2004.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fj.math.fund.sci.2013.45.3.5


  • There are currently no refbacks.

View my Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (LPPM), Center for Research and Community Services (CRCS) Building, 6th & 7th Floor, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia, Tel. +62-22-86010080, Fax.: +62-22-86010051; E-mail: jmfs@lppm.itb.ac.id