Perencanaan Lingkungan Perkotaan yang Aman dari Ancaman Kriminalitas Terhadap Anak: Sebuah Studi Kasus dari Negeri Jepang (Securing Urban Neighborhood from Criminal Threats to Children: The Case of Japan)

Riela Provi Drianda, Isami Kinoshita, Fani Deviana

Abstract


Abstrak. Isu keselamatan anak selama berada di ruang publik telah menjadi perhatian masyarakat perkotaan di berbagai negara. Ruang publik modern kini dipersepsikan sebagai arena berbahaya bagi seorang anak untuk bergerak dan beraktivitas tanpa pengawasan orang tua maupun orang dewasa yang dapat dipercaya oleh orang tua. Persepsi ini telah membuat sejumlah anak di berbagai belahan dunia menghadapi penurunan kesempatan untuk mengeksplorasi lingkungan sehari-harinya secara aktif dan hal ini ternyata berdampak pada kesehatan anak serta kemampuan anak untuk menjadi pengguna lingkungan yang independen. Namun demikian, studi kami mencatat bahwa masih ada satu negara di dunia yang merespon isu keselamatan anak di ruang perkotaan dengan cara yang berbeda. Keberadaan anak tidaklah ditarik dari ruang publik maupun semi publik seperti yang umum terjadi di beberapa negara barat. Di Jepang, pemerintah dan komunitas lokal justru melaksanakan berbagai intervensi agar anak tetap dapat beraktivitas secara mandiri di lingkungan hariannya. Artikel ini mengupas mengenai tiga tipe intervensi yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat Jepang untuk meningkatkan keamanan di lingkungan perkotaan dari ancaman kriminalitas terhadap anak. Ketiga tipe intervensi yang dimaksud adalah peningkatan aksi komunitas untuk pencegahan tindak potensi kriminal, penggunaan teknologi untuk pencegahan tindak potensi kriminal, dan desain dan manajemen ruang kota.

Kata Kunci: Keamanan Kota, kriminalitas, anak, Jepang

Abstract. The issue of child safety in public space has attracted a considerable attention from urban society in many countries. Modern public space has been perceived as a dangerous zone for children to move around and play without the supervision of their parents or adults trusted by their parents. This perception has made a number of children around the world to experience a decline in their opportunities to actively explore their daily environment and this has an impact on the children health and children capability to be independent environment users. However, this study noted that there is a country that responds to the issue of child safety differently. The presence of children is not pulled out of the public space as commonly happens in some western countries. In Japan, the government and local community conducted some interventions in order for the children to be able to be active by themselves in their daily environment. This article discusses three types of intenventions conducted by the people of Japan to enhance security in the urban neighborhood from the threat of criminality affecting the children. The three types of intervention consist of the enhancement of community action for the prevention of criminal action, the use of technology for the prevention of criminal action, and the design and management of urban space.

Keywords: urban security, crime, child, Japan


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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fjpwk.2015.26.1.2

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