Segregasi Spasial Perumahan Skala Besar: Studi Kasus Kota Baru Kota Harapan Indah (KHI) Bekasi

Rendy Adriyan Diningrat

Abstract


Abstrak. Pembangunan kota baru di Indonesia memiliki tren untuk menyediakan perumahan eksklusif yang menyebabkan segregasi spasial. Artikel ini mendeskripsikan fenomena tersebut di Kota Harapan Indah, yakni salah satu kota baru di kawasan Metropolitan Jakarta. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan deduktif-kualitatif, tulisan ini menunjukkan bagaimana segregasi  spasial tersebut terjadi dalam dua bentuk, yakni (1) segregasi spasial antara kota baru dengan wilayah sekitarnaya dan (2) segregasi spasial antar kluster dalam kota baru. Kedua bentuk segregasi ini sebenarnya merupakan fenomena yang sengaja didesain oleh pengembang perumahan untuk mewadahi keinginan penduduk kelas menengah ke atas dalam rangka mengeksklusifkan diri. Artikel ini pun membuktikan bahwa segregasi fisik beresiko menggagalkan ikhtiar kota baru untuk meningkatkan hubungan kekerabatan antar penduduknya.

Kata kunci. Segregasi spasial, kota baru, perumahan, Bekasi

Abstract.  New town development in Indonesia has a trend to encourage exclusive housing which reinforce the spatial segregation. This article describes how that phenomenon happened in Kota Harapan Indah (KHI), one of the self-sufficient new towns in Jakarta Metropolitan Area. Using the deductive-qualitative approach, this article shows that the spatial segregation occurs in two ways, which are (1) the spatial segregation between new town and the surrounding areas; and (2) the spatial segregation within clusters in the new town. Both forms of segregation are actually a phenomenon that is deliberately designed by the housing developer to accommodate the desire of the upper-middle class to become more exclusive. This study also shown that physical segregation can hinder to the initiative of new town development to improve the kinship between their residences.

Keywords. Spatial segregation, new town, housing, Bekasi


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fjpwk.2015.26.2.4

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