Evaluation of Ecotourism Management in Tangkahan Ecotourism Region, National Park of Mount Leuser in North Sumatera

Tri Rizkiana Yusnikusumah, Endah Sulistyawati

Abstract


Evaluasi Pengelolaan Ekowisata di Kawasan Ekowisata Tangkahan Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser Sumatera Utara

Perkembangan pesat ekowisata saat ini tidak disertai dengan usaha pengendalian terhadap perkembangan sehingga banyak sekali kerusakan alam yang disebabkan oleh kegiatan wisata. Oleh karena itu, pengembangan set indikator yang dapat menjadi pengingat dalam sistem pengelolaan ekowisata sangat diperlukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan perangkat evaluasi pengelolaan ekowisata berbasis kriteria dan indikator. Set kriteria dan indikator kemudian digunakan untuk menilai sistem pengelolaan kawasan ekowisata Tangkahan, Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser, Sumatera Utara. Set kriteria dan indikator yang disusun merupakan hasil kajian pustaka beberapa penelitian terkait evaluasi ekowisata. Bobot indikator pada penelitian ini diberikan oleh stakeholder dan pakar ekowisata dan dihitung menggunakan metode pairwise comparison. Untuk peniilaian pengelolaan ekowisata, metode observasi lapangan serta studi dokumen dilakukan untuk penilaian berkaitan dengan kawasan ekowisata dan metode wawancara serta pengisian kuesioner dilakukan untuk penilaian berkaitan dengan persepsi pengunjung dan masyarakat lokal dengan jumlah sampel masing-masing 100 orang. Hasil evaluasi menggunakan set kriteria dan indikator  berhasil mengungkap keunggulan dan kelemahan dalam pengelolaan. Kolaborasi partisipatif masyarakat lokal dalam pengelolaan kawasan dan potensi wisata menjadi nilai lebih kawasan ekowisata Tangkahan. Kegiatan interpretasi lingkungan yang dilakukan masih memerlukan peningkatan kualitas ke arah yang lebih baik dengan adanya variasi baru kegiatan interpretasi serta perencanaan dan monitoring. Pengelola juga belum bisa melakukan usaha konservasi budaya lokal serta belum dapat mengolah data administrasi kelembagaan dengan baik. Kegiatan promosi yang dilakukan oleh pengelola masih kurang. Kerjasama berbasis lembaga diperlukan untuk peningkatan kualitas promosi.

Kata kunci. evaluasi, pengelolaan,  ekowisata, kriteria dan indikator, Tangkahan.

 

The rapid development of ecotourism is currently not accompanied by control efforts as at the moment some activities of ecotourism can degrade natural resources. Hence, the development of a set of warning indicators that can serve as a reminder in ecotourism management is indispensable. The purpose of this study was to develop an ecotourism evaluation tool based on criteria and indicators. A set of criteria and indicator was then used to assess ecotourism management of the Tangkahan Ecotourism Area Mount Leuser National Park, North Sumatera. Literature study on ecotourism evaluation was conducted to compile a set of criteria and indicators. Indicator weighting in this study was given by stakeholders of Tangkahan and ecotourism experts and was analyzed using a pairwise comparison method. Field and document study was conducted to assess ecotourism management activities. For visitor and local community perception, interview and questionnaires were carried out with a sample size of 100 persons each. This study showed the strength and the weakness of ecotourism management in Tangkahan. The participatory collaboration of local communities in ecotourism management and tourism potential is a strength that distinguishes Tangkahan from other ecotourism areas. As for the weaknesses, interpretation activities require quality enhancement that can be achieved by providing a new variety of interpretation along with better planning and monitoring of the activities. The management was also still unable to implement conservation activities for local heritage and needs to improve institutional administration. Promotional activities were also still insufficient, thus institution based cooperation is needed to increase the quality of promotion.

Keywords. evaluation, management, ecotourism, criteria and indicator, Tangkahan


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fjrcp.2016.27.3.1

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