Persepsi Risiko Terhadap Penyediaan dan Pengelolaan Tenaga Kerja dalam International Joint Venture pada Proyek Infrastruktur

Puti Farida Marzuki, Shirly Susanne Lumeno

Abstract


Abstrak. Risiko kontraktor akibat penyediaan dan pengelolaan tenaga kerja merupakan tantangan pada international joint venture (IJV) pada proyek karena tenaga kerja domestik dan asing dengan latar belakang dan pola pikir yang berbeda harus bekerja sama di dalam aliansi yang baru untuk mencapai tujuan proyek. Makalah ini membahas persepsi terhadap faktor risiko penyediaan dan pengelolaan tenaga kerja melalui suatu studi kasus pada suatu proyek pembangunan infrastruktur di Indonesia yang dilaksanakan oleh dua mitra yang bergabung di dalam suatu IJV. Data dikumpulkan dengan melakukan survei melalui suatu kuesioner yang diisi oleh tenaga kerja kedua mitra tersebut. Hasil penelitian mengenai persepsi ini mengindikasikan bahwa terdapat perbedaan antara masalah penyediaan dan pengelolaan tenaga kerja yang dihadapi oleh mitra asing, mitra domestik serta berbagai level manajemen dalam IJV. Perbedaan ini terutama terdeteksi melalui persepsi mereka terhadap permasalahan yang terkait dengan peraturan dan perizinan, pengetahuan dan pengalaman kerja, serta kompensasi/reward. Adanya indikasi perbedaan persepsi antar mitra dan antar level manajemen mengenai faktor risiko yang berpeluang merugikan kontraktor dapat mempengaruhi kinerja joint venture yang harus dicerminkan oleh kualitas kerja, produktivitas kerja, dan hubungan kerja. Identifikasi persepsi responden ini selanjutnya dapat dimanfaatkan untuk merancang mitigasi terhadap risiko kerugian yang dihadapi IJV pada proyek akibat pengadaan dan pengelolaan tenaga kerjanya.

Abstract. Contractor’s risk involved with the recruitment and management of workers is a challenge in project based international joint ventures (IJV) as domestic and foreign workers with different backgrounds and diverse mind set have to collaborate in a new alliance and face a dynamic situation in a relatively short period to achieve the project’s objectives. This paper analyzes the perception of the contractors’ workers on this risk through a case study of an infrastructure project executed by an IJV in Indonesia. A questionnaire is completed by the IJV partners’ workers to collect data. The results indicate that the foreign and domestic partners in the IJV as well as its management levels face different problems of workers recruitment and management. This is mostly revealed through their different perceptions on problems related to regulations, work knowledge and experience, as well as compensation/reward. Meanwhile, it is also shown that consolidation, communication, language, and work environment are perceived as the main important factors to achieve the expected project’s performance. Perception differences among the joint venture partners and management levels have the potential to influence performance. This perception identification can be further used in decision making by an IJV to mitigate the risk involved with workers procurement and management.

Keywords


International Joint Venture; Proyek; Persepsi; Penyediaan dan pengelolaan tenaga kerja; Faktor risiko.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fjts.2011.18.1.2

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