Analysis of Customers’ Visual Comfort Perception and Mood for Cafés using Colored Glass Curtain

Prabu Wardono, Yuni Maharani


People generally prefer to work or spend leisure time under natural light rather than artificial light. Direct sunlight that enters into leisure places interrupt guests when having a meal or are enjoying the surrounding natural environment. Bamboo curtains are commonly used in Indonesia to control natural light but they do not allow people to look outside. This research was aimed at solving this problem by developing three sets of colored glass curtains–cool colored, warm colored and combined (warm/cool colored) – and testing them in a real situation, which involved test subjects having a meal in a café with a natural view, to find out which alternative had the best effect on the subjects’ visual comfort and mood. Forty-two student respondents participated voluntarily in the experiment. The one way repeated measured ANOVA statistic results showed that there were significant differences in visual comfort and mood response in the same space between a number of manipulated conditions. The subjects had a significantly different visual comfort and mood response when the cool colored glass curtain was used compared to using the warm colored glass curtain or the combined glass curtain. This research concludes that bamboo shades and cool colored glass curtains are preferable to satisfy customers’ visual comfort and that all the spatial conditions contribute to the customers’ mood during dining.


daylight; glass curtains; mood; perception; visual comfort

Full Text:



Gurhananda, I. & Wandebori, H., Strategic Marketing for Restaurant Business (Case Study of Lawangmangi Café), Journal of Business and Management, 3(1), pp. 112-131, 2014.

Pratminingsih, S.A. & Puspitasari D.M., Developing Bandung as Culinary Destination, The Fourth International Conference on Entrepreneurship and Business Management, Bangkok, Thailand – November 5-6, 2015, pp. 312-316, 2015.

Ciani, A.E., A Study of How Lighting can Affect A Guest's Dining Experience, Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Iowa State University, #11369, United States, 2010.

De Castro, J. & Stroebele, N., Effect of Ambiance on Food Intake and Food Choice, Nutrition, 20(9), pp. 821-838, 2004.

Walls, A., Okumus, F., Wang, Y. & Kwun, D.J-W., Understanding the Consumer Experience: An Exploratory Study of Luxury Hotels, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 20(2), pp. 166-197, 2011.

Boyce, P.R., Human Factors in Lighting, Vol. 3, CRC Press, New York 2014.

Lee, J.H., Moon, J.W. & Kim, S., Analysis of Occupants’ Visual Perception to Refine Indoor Lighting Environment for Office Tasks, Energies, 7(7), pp. 4116-4139, 2014.

Nazal, A.A., A New Evaluation Method for Daylight Discomfort Glare, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35(4), pp. 295-306, 2005.

Kim, W. & Kim, J.T., The Scope of the Glare Light Source of the Window with Non-uniform Luminance Distribution, Indoor and Built Environment, 20(1), pp. 54-64, 2011.

Carmine, S., Daylighting in Buildings: Developments of Sunlight Addressing by Optical Fiber, Solar Energy, 89, pp. 113-121, 2013.

Belia, L. & Gennaro, S., Daylight Glare: A Review of Discomfort Indexes in Visual Quality and Energy Efficiency in Indoor Lighting: Today for Tomorrow, Rome: IT, Rome, 2008.

Bathia, A., Effects of Interior Environment on the Dining Experience & Design of a Prototype Seafood Restaurant, Master Theses, Florida State University, United States, 2003.

Dahlan, N.D., Occupant’s Indoor Comfort Perceptions through Thermal, Visual & acoustic Assessments in Typical Multi-Storey Hotels in Malaysia, Doctoral Dissertation, Welsh School of Architecture, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United State, 2009.

Zhao, Z., Amasyali, K., Chamaoun, R. & El-Gohary, N., Occupants’ Perceptions about Indoor Environment Comfort and Energy-Related Values in Commercial and Residential Buildings, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 34, pp. 631-640, 2016.

Gomez, C.C. & Preto, S. Should the Light be Static or Dynamic?, Procedia Manufacturing, 3, pp. 4635-4642, 2015.

Wardono, P. & Soelami, F.N., Effects of Luminous Furniture on Mood, Procedia and Social Behavior, 222, pp. 342-350, 2016.

Han, S. & Lee, D., The Effects of Treatment Room Lighting Color on Time Perception and Emotion, Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 29(7), pp. 1247-1249, 2017.

Gronfier, C., The Good Blue and Chronobiology: Light and Non-Visual Functions, Points de Vue, International Review of Ophthalmic Optics, N68, Spring, 2013,, (02 April 2019)

Delwiche, J.F., You Eat with Your Eyes First, Physiology & Behavior, 107(4), pp. 502-504, 2012.

Piech, R.M., Pastorino, M. & Zaid, D.H., All I Saw was the Cake. Hunger Effects on Attentional Capture by Visual Food Cues, Apetite, 54, pp. 529-582, 2010.

Hurling, R. & Shepherd, R., Eating with Your Eyes: Effect of Appearance on Expectations of Liking, Appetite, 41(2), pp. 167-174, 2004.

Spence, C. & Piqueras-Fiszman, B., The Perfect Meal: The Multisensory Science of Food and Dining, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2014.

Spence, C., On the Psychological Impact of Food Colour, Flavour, 4(21), pp. 1-16, 2015.



  • There are currently no refbacks.