Determination of ZNHD based on GPS Data, Radiosonde, and Numerical Weather Model

Susilo Susilo, Dudy D. Wijaya, Wedyanto Kuntjoro, Joni Efendi


Abstract. Water vapor is a principal element in the thermodynamics of the atmosphere and plays an important role in clouds condensation, which eventually can affect the radiative energy balance. Water vapor cobservation is essential for monitoring global/regional scale of weather and climate changes. However, high variation of water vapor concentrations makes it difficult to observe accurately using the conventional meteorogical observation technique (radiosonde), which is limited in both space and time. Nowadays, accurate observation of water vapor can be accomplished by the Global Positioning System (GPS). In this research, we use 14 continuous GPS stations from Bakosurtanal to observe temporal characteristic of water vapor concentration over West Java region.

Keywords: GPS, NCEP, radiosonde, topographic, ZNHD

Teks Lengkap:

PDF (English)


Bar-sever, Y.E., Kroger, P. M., & Boerjesson, J. A., Estimating Horizontal Gradients of Tropospheric Path Delay with A Single GPS Receiver, J. Geophys. Res., 103(B3), 5019-5035, 1998.

Bevis, M., Businger, S., Herring, T A., Rocken, C., Anthes, R. A., Ware, R. H., GPS Meteorology: Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Water Vapor Using the Global Positioning System, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 97, no. D14, pages 15,787-15,801, 1992.

Bevis, M., S. Businger, S. Chiswell, T. A. Herring, R. A. Anthes, C. Rocken, & R. H. Ware, GPS Meteorology: Mapping Zenith Wet Delays onto Precipitable Water, J. Appl. Meteor., 33, 379-386, 1994.

Boehm, J., Tropospheric Delay Modelling at Radiowavelengths for Space Geodetic Technique, Technical Report Heft Nr. 80, 2007, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Vienna University of Technology, 2007.

Foelsche, U., Tropospheric Water Vapor Imaging by Combination of Ground-Based and Spaceborne GNSS Sounding Data, Ph. D thesis, Institute for Meteorology and Geophysics, University Graz, Austria, 1999.

Gabor, M. Remote Sensing of Water Vapor From GPS Receivers, ASE 389P – Remote Sensing from Space, University of Texas at Austin, Spring 1997 mid-term project; website:, 1997.

Herring, T. A., Davis, J. L., and Shapiro, I., Geodesy by Radio Interferometry: The Application of Kalman Filtering to The Analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry Data, Geophys. Ress. Lett., 95(B8), 12561-12581, 1990.

Herring, T. A., Modeling Atmospheric Delays in The Analysis of Space Geodetic Data, in Symposium on Refraction of Transatmospheric Signals in Geodesy, Publ. Geod., edited by J. C. De Munk and T. A. Spoelstra, pp. 157-164, Netherlands geodetic Comission, Delft, 1992.

Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., Lichtenegger, H., and Collins, J., Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice, 5th edition. Australia: Springer-Verlag Wien New York, 2001.

Karabatic, A., Precise Point Positioning (PPP) – An Alternative Technique for Ground Based GNSS Troposphere Monitoring, Dissertation, Vienna University of Technology, Faculty of Mathematics anf Geoinformation, Vienna, February, 2011.

King, R. W., Herring, T. A., McClusky, S. C., GAMIT Reference Manual, Release 10.40, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, October, 2010.

MacMillan, D. S., Atmospheric Gradients from Very Long Baseline Interferometry Observations, Geophys. Ress. Lett., 22(9), 1041-1044, 1995.

Mockler, S. B., Water Vapor in the Climate System, Special Report,, 1995.

Niell, A. E., Global Mapping Functions for The Atmospheric Delay at Radiowavelengths, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 3227-3246, 1996.

Saastamoinen, J., Atmospheric Correction for The Troposphere and Stratosphere in Radio Ranging of Satellites, in The Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 15, edited by S. W. Henriksen, A. Mancini, and B. H. Chovitz, pp. 247-251, AGU, Washington D. C., 1972.

Susilo, Pemantauan Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) di Wilayah Jawa Barat Menggunakan GPS Kontinu, Tesis Magister Teknik Geodesi dan Geomatika, ITB, Bandung, 2012.

Wijaya, D. D., Atmospheric Correction Formula for Space Geodetic Techniques, PhD thesis, Engineering Geodesy, Graz University of Technology, Shaker-Verlag, 2010.

Wijaya, D. D., & Fritz K. Brunner, Atmospheric Range Correction for Two-Frequency SLR Measurements, Journal of Geodesy, doi: 10.1007/s00190-011-0469-8, 2011.