A Global Review on Peri-Urban Development and Planning

Johan Woltjer

Abstract


Abstrak: Wilayah perkotaan di seluruh dunia semakin menghadapi tantangan pertumbuhan metropolitan yang sangat dinamis, dan pada saat yang sama, perubahan kelembagaan seperti desentralisasi dan globalisasi. Perubahan-perubahan semacam ini tampak nyata pada kawasan peri-urban, tempat bertemunya kehidupan perkotaan dan perdesaan. Secara khusus kawasan peri-urban ini telah menjadi tempat bagi transformasi fisik, sosial dan ekonomi yang pesat. Berdasarkan kajian literatur, artikel ini mengidentifikasi karakteristik umum peri-urbanisasi dan bagaimana perencanaan pembangunan menanggapinya. Tiga karakteristik umum yang diidentifikasi: ruang peri-urban (ungkapan ruang dari pembangunan peri-urban), kehidupan peri-urban (tampilan fungsional dari tata guna lahan, aktivitas peri-urban dan inovasi), dan perubahan peri-urban (perspektif kausal dan temporal yang meliputi aliran dan penggerak perubahan). Diperlihatkan pula bahwa umumnya tanggapan kelembagaan perencanaan dan pembangunan gagal untuk menanggapi karakteristik peri-urbanisasi global yang dinamis dan semakin terfragmentasi.

Kata kunci: Peri-urbanisasi, pertumbuhan metropolitan, kapasitas kelembagaan, globalisasi

Abstract: Urban regions worldwide are increasingly facing the challenge of dealing with highly dynamic metropolitan growth and, at the same time, institutional changes like decentralisation and globalisation. These kinds of changes express themselves most evidently in peri-urban areas, where urban and rural life meets. These peri-urban areas in particular have been the stage for rapid physical, social and economic transformations, both in developed and developing countries. Peri-urbanization takes place here. Based on literature review, this paper presents an effort to identify generic attributes of peri-urbanisation and the way in which development planning tends to reply. Three major attributes are identified: peri-urban space (the spatial expression of peri-urban development), peri-urban life (the functional appearance of land uses, activities and peri-urban innovation), and peri-urban change (a causal and temporal perspective featuring flows and drivers of change). It is also shown that prevalent institutional replies in planning and development generally fail to acknowledge the dynamic and increasingly fragmented attributes of global peri-urbanisation.

Keyword: Peri-urbanisation, metropolitan growth, institutional capacity, globalisation


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fjpwk.2014.25.1.1

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