Social Optimality of Cordon Area Congestion Pricing in an Monocentric City

Harya S Dillon

Abstract


Abstrak. Kemacetan lalu lintas merupakan epidemi global yang telah melumpuhkan banyak kota. Dari sudut pandang ekonomi mikro, kemacetan dapat dipandang sebagai eksternalitas negatif dimana diperlukan bea Pigovian sebagai solusi atas ekuilibrium yang kurang optimal tersebut. Eksternalitas ini dirasakan dalam bentuk tundaan perjalanan dan pembangunan kota yang rakus lahan. Meskipun teori mengenai ketepatgunaan bea kemacetan (congestion pricing) telah mapan sejak akhir 1970-an, penerapan dan implementasi kebijakan tertunda oleh kendala teknologi. Salah satu bentuk implementasi bayaran kemacetan yang sering dijumpai adalah bea lintas-kordon (cordon charging), dimana penglaju yang masuk ke wilayah pusat dibebani sejumlah biaya. Ketepatgunaan dari bea lintas-kordon telah dikaji secara empiris dan juga dengan simulasi numerik, namun penjelasan teoretis belum dilakukan secara tuntas. Penulis mengembangkan model kota monosentris untuk meneliti dampak kebijakan bea lintas-kordon pada kepadatan kota dan permintaan akan lahan kota (equilibrium rent). Bea lintas-kordon akan menaikkan harga lahan di pusat kota dan memperbesar gradien kurva tawaran-sewa (bid-rent curve). Namun yang lebih penting untuk diperhatikan adalah bahwa besaran ini ditentukan oleh parameter kordon. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa daya manfaat kebijakan ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh pilihan parameter kordon yang dibuat perencana.

Kata kunci. kemacetan, bea lintas-kordon, kota monosentris, struktur kota

Abstract. Traffic congestion is a global epidemic that at time has put cities to a state of paralysis. From a microeconomics point of view, congestion can be approached as a negative externality that merits a Pigovian tax to correct the suboptimal equilibrium. Externalities manifest in delays and wasteful urbanization. While the efficiency of congestion pricing has been well established since the late 1970s, policy adoption and implementation have been delayed due to technological constraints. One the most popular form of congestion pricing is cordon charging where inbound commuters are charged a certain fixed fee. The efficiency of cordon pricing has been explored by numerous empirical and simulation studies. However, theoretical explanations of results are largely missing. I consider a monocentric city model to explore the effect of cordon charging schemes on urban density and housing demand (equilibrium rent). Cordon pricing increases rents at the center and also the slope of the bid-rent curve. Most importantly, these quantities are functions of cordon parameters which suggest that efficiency is affected by planners’ choice of cordon parameters.

Keywords. Congestion, cordon pricing, monocentric city, urban structure


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fjpwk.2015.26.1.5

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