Analisis Kebijakan Distribusi Bahan Baku Rotan Dengan Pendekatan Dinamik Sistem Studi Kasus Rotan Indonesia

Nurlaela Kumala Dewi, Miming Miharja, Gatot Yudoko

Abstract


Penghentian ekspor bahan baku rotan, ternyata belum membuat industri mebel di Tanah Air mendapat pasokan bahan baku yang memadai. Sejumlah pengrajin di daerah asal bahan baku rotan seperti Cirebon, Semarang, Surabaya, Jakarta dan daerah industri pengolah bahan baku rotan tetap mengeluh kekurangan bahan baku. Kalau pun ada, harganya sudah naik sampai 30%. Beberapa penelitian tentang cara pendistribusian bahan baku rotan sampai saat ini belum ada yang membahas tentang bagaimana cara mendistribusikan bahan baku dari upstream (hutan, asal bahan baku rotan) ke downstream (industri pengolahan baha baku rotan menjadi mebel rotan) sehingga masalah ini menjadi menarik dan seperti kita ketahui bahwa bahan baku rotan merupakan komoditi yang dimiliki oleh Indonesia sebagai penghasil rotan nomer satu dunia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membangun suatu model dinamika yang dapat menerangkan keterkaitan antar faktor di dalam jalur distribusi bahan baku rotan dalam upaya memahami interaksi dari sektor transportasi, logistic dan kebijakan pemerintah dalam mendukung industri rotan nasional. Dengan mengacu pada kebijakan yang telah ada maka dalam penelitian ini ingin dikaji apakah kebijakan pemerintah tersebut saat ini dapat meningkatkan kondisi bahan baku rotan tetap stabil dan meningkatkan perekonomian di daerah asal bahan baku rotan. Pendekatan yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini adalah simulasi dinamika sistem. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kebijakan yang ada saat ini ternyata belum berpengaruh dalam menstabilkan kondisi pasokan bahan baku rotan dan meningkatkan perekonomian daerah penghasil rotan yang ada di Indonesia. Untuk itu disusunlah beberapa skenario yang diharapkan mampu mengatasi permasalahan pasokan bahan baku rotan ke industri rotan nasiona. Adapun skenario itu adalah sebagai berikut : meningkatkan pendapatan petani dan pengepul dengan menitik beratkan pada investasi  dan skenario meningkatkan tingkat pendapatan daerah dengan tetap menjaga kelestarian sumber daya alam.

Kata kunci. Dinamik Sistem, model dinamik, kebijakan transportasi, persediaan

 

Export termination of rattan raw materials has not resulted in the local Indonesian furniture industry to have an adequate supply of raw materials. In areas of origin of rattan raw materials (such as Cirebon, Semarang, Surabaya, and Jakarta) and in industrial processing areas of rattan raw materials, craftsmen are still complaining about the lack of raw materials. Even if  the supply is there, the price has gone up with 30%. Up until now, researches on the distribution of rattan raw materials have not discussed how to distribute materials from ‘upstream’ (forest, origin of raw materials) to ‘downstream’ (processing of raw materials to rattan furniture), which is an interesting problem because rattan constitutes a commodity for Indonesia as the world’s number one rattan producer. The purpose of this study was to build a dynamic model that can explain the relationships between different factors in the distribution channel of rattan in an attempt to understand the interaction between the transportation sector, logistics, and government policies in support of the national rattan industry. With reference to existing policies, this study wanted to assess whether the current government policies can stabilize the supply conditions of rattan raw materials and improve the economy in the areas of origin of rattan raw materials. The approach used in this study was system dynamics simulation. The results show that the existing policies have not succeeded in stabilizing the supply conditions of rattan raw materials or improve the economics of the rattan raw materials producing areas in Indonesia. Therefore, some scenarios were drafted that are expected to be able to solve the problem of rattan raw materials supply in the national rattan industry. The scenarios are: improving the income of farmers and collectors by emphasizing investment and improving the level of regional income by maintaining the sustainability of natural resources.

Keywords: dynamic systems simulation, dynamic models, transport policy, supplies


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fjpwk.2015.26.3.3

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