Ekowisata Belum Milik Bersama: Kapasitas Jejaring Stakeholder dalam Pengelolaan Ekowisata (Studi Kasus: Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango)

Gilang Pamungkas

Abstract


Pengelolaan ekowisata membutuhkan dukungan dari berbagai pihak. Partisipasi pemangku kepentingan atau stakeholder erat kaitannya dengan kapasitas yang dimiliki stakeholder sebagai salah satu modal dalam pengelolaan ekowisata. Kapasitas ini khususnya adalah kapasitas pengembangan jejaring stakeholder yang mutlak dibutuhkan dalam pengelolaan ekowisata yang bersifat multisektoral. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengukur kapasitas jejaring stakeholder dalam pengelolaan ekowisata di kawasan tersebut. Pengukuran dilakukan melalu domain jejaring kerjasama berdasarkan Indeks Kapasitas Komunitas. Studi ini menunjukan bahwa kapasitas jejaring stakeholder saat ini sudah memiliki kapasitas untuk mengidentifikasi sumber daya dan menjalankan program pengelolaan ekowisata. Meskipun untuk menuju jejaring yang mapan dan mampu menjadi sumber daya bagi program masih memiliki kelemahan yaitu belum adanya prosedur formal untuk menjalankan program serta rasa kepemilikan dari stakeholder.

Kata Kunci: ekowisata, jejaring, kapasitas, pengelolaan, stakeholder

 

Ecotourism management requires the support of various parties. Participation of local stakeholders is closely related to the capacity of stakeholders as one of the capital in the management of ecotourism. This capacity development capacity networking in particular is absolutely necessary stakeholders in ecotourism management is multisectoral. This study aimed to measure the capacity of networks of stakeholders in the management of ecotourism in the region. Measurements were made through the cooperation network domain by the Community Capacity Index. This study shows that the capacity of networks of stakeholders now have the capacity to identify and execute resource management program ecotourism. Although towards the established networks and are able to be a resource for the program still has the disadvantage of the lack of formal procedures for running the program as well as a sense of ownership of the stakeholders.

Keywords: ecotourism, networking, capacity, management, stakeholder


Full Text:

PDF

References


Chaskin, Robert J., et al. 2001. Building Community Capacity. New York: Walter de Gruyter Inc.

Bickerdyke, I. (1996). Australia: The evolving structure and strategies of business networks. In OECD (Ed.), Networks of Enterprises and Local Development: Competing and Co-operating in Local

productive Systems (pp. 203-216). Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Bjork, P., & Virtanen, H. (2005). What Tourism Project Managers Need To Know About Co-Operation Facilitators. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 5(3), 212–230.

Damanik, Janianton, dan F. Weber Helmut. 2006. Perencanaan Ekowisata: Dari Teori Aplikasi. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi.

Dwyer, L. and Edwards, D. (2000) NatureBased Tourism on the Edge of Urban Development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 8(4): 267-287.

Fennel, David. 1999. Ecotourism: An Introduction. London: Routledge.

Freeman, R.E. (1984) Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pitman Publishing.

Halme, M. (2001). Learning For Sustainable Development In Tourism Networks. Business Strategy and the Environment, 10(2), 100-114

Honey, M. 1999. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development. Who owns Paradise? Washington D.C.: Island Press

Instruksi Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 16 Tahun 2005 Tentang Kebijakan

Pembangunan Kebudayaan Dan Pariwisata

Lovelock, B. (2001). Interorganisational relations in the protected area – Tourism Policy Domain: The Influence of Macroeconomic Policy. Current Issues in Tourism, 4(2/4), 253-274

Scoot, Noel; Baggio, Rudolfo; Cooper, Chris. 2008. Network Analysis and Tourism: From Theory to Practice.Clevedon: Channel View Publications.

Wood, Megan Epler. 2002. Ecotourism: Principles, Practices & Policies For Sustainibility. USA:UNEP.

Bush, Robert; Dower, Jo; Mutch, Allyson . 2002. Community Capacity Index Manual V2.. Queensland: The University of Queensland.

Pechlaner, H., Tallinucci, V., Abfalter, D., & Rienzner, H. (2003). Networking for Small Island Destinations – The Case of Elba. In A. J. Frew, M. Hitz & P. O’Connor (Eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism (pp. 105-114). Wien: Springer

The Components of Succesful Ecotourism. 2002. Burlington::The International Ecotourism Society.

Tinsley, R., & Lynch, P. (2001). Small Tourism Business Networks And Destination Development. Hospitality Management, 20(4), 367-378.

Ward, J. 2000. The Relative Net Economic Benefits of Logging And Tourism in Native Australian Forests. PhD Thesis, Griffith University, Gold Coast Australia

Wood, M.E. (1999) Ecotourism, Sustainable Development And Cultural Survival: Protecting Indigenous Culture And Land Through Ecotourism. Cultural Survival 23(2): 25-59




Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2019 Journal of Regional and City Planning