Pengaruh Iklim dan Perubahannya Terhadap Destinasi Pariwisata Pantai Pangandaran

Titania Suwarto

Abstract


Perubahan iklim global diperkirakan akan mempengaruhi penawaran dan permintaan pariwisata di Kawasan Pantai Pangandaran. Dari segi penawaran, perubahan iklim diprediksi akan mengakibatkan kerusakan sumber daya alam dan budaya yang menjadi produk utama pariwisata. Sedangkan, dari sisi permintaan, perubahan iklim akan memengaruhi pola kunjungan wisatawan serta persepsi dan preferensi wisatawan. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menemukenali pengaruh dari iklim dan perubahannya terhadap destinasi pariwisata Pantai Pangandaran, khususnya pada perubahan kondisi fisik (lingkungan) daya tarik wisata serta pola kunjungan, persepsi, dan preferensi wisatawan. Penelitian ini mencoba mengidentifikasi dampak potensial dari perubahan iklim terhadap variabel penawaran (supply) dan permintaan (demand) dalam sektor pariwisata. Pengidentifikasian dampak perubahan iklim terhadap variabel penawaran (supply) dapat dilihat dari dampak potensial yang ditimbulkan perubahan iklim pada kondisi fisik daya tarik wisata yang berimplikasi pada perubahan pengelolaan destinasi pariwisata. Sedangkan, pengidentifikasian dampak perubahan iklim terhadap variabel permintaan (demand) dapat dilihat melalui pengidentifikasian relevansi faktor iklim sebagai faktor penarik suatu destinasi pariwisata.

Kata kunci: perubahan iklim, destinasi, permintaan, penawaran

 

Global climate change is expected to affect the supply and demand for tourism in Pangandaran beach area. In terms of supply, climate change is predicted to result in damage to natural resources and cultural tourism as its main product. Meanwhile, from the demand side, climate change will affect the pattern of tourist arrivals, perceptions and preferences. This study aims to identify the influence of climate change on Pangandaran beach tourism destinations, especially on changes in physical conditions (environment), tourists’ attraction, as well as visit patterns, perceptions, and preferences of tourists. This study sought to identify potential impacts of climate change on supply variables and demand in the tourism sector. Identifying the impacts of climate change on supply variables can be seen from the potential impacts of climate change posed to the physical condition that implicates a major tourist attraction in tourism destination management changes. Meanwhile, identification of climate change impacts on the variable demand can be seen by identifying relevance of climatic factors as a tourism destination pull factors.

Keywords: climate change, destination, demand, supply


Full Text:

PDF

References


Aguiló E, Alegre J, dan Sard M. The Persistence of the Sun and Sand Tourism Model. Tourism Manage 26 (2005): 219-231.

Amelung, B. dan D. Viner. Mediterranean Tourism: Exploring the Future with The Tourism Climatic Index. Sustainable Tourism 14 (2006): 349-366.

Amelung, B., S. Nicholls, dan D. Viner. Implications of Global Climate Change for Tourism Flows and Seasonality. Travel Research 45 (2007): 285-296.

Amelung, Bass dan Alvaro Moreno. How Hot Is Too Hot? A Survey on Climate (Change and Tourism). Dipresentasikan pada The 6th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, 23-26 Juni, 2009.

Brohan, P., J.J. Kennedy, I. Harris, S.F.B. Tett dan P.D. Jones. 2006. Uncertainty Estimates in Regional and Global Observed Temperature Changes: A New Dataset From 1850. J. Geophysical Research.

Diposaptono, Subandono. Menyiasati Perubahan Iklim di Wilayah Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil. Bogor: Penerbit Buku Ilmiah Populer, 2009.

Hamilton, Jacqueline M., David J. Maddison, dan Richard S.J. Tol. Climate Change and International Tourism: A Simulation Study. Global Environmental Change 15 (2005): 253–266.

Hamilton, Jacqueline M., David J. Maddison, dan Richard S.J. Tol. Effect of Climate Change on International Tourism. Climate Research 29 (2005): 245–254.

Hidayati, Rini. 2001. Masalah Perubahan Iklim di Indonesia Beberapa Contoh Kasus. Program Pasca Sarjana S-3, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Noveber 2001.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policymakers ( B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L. A. Meyer). Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, AMERIKA SERIKAT: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Marshall, P., Schuttenberg, H. 2006. A Reef Manager’s Guide to Coral Bleaching. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Australia.

Prasad, Neeraj, Federica Ranghieri, Fatima Shah, Zoe Trohanis, Earl Kessler, dan Ravi Sinha. 2009. Climate Resilience Cities: A Primer on Reducing Vulnerabilities of Disaster. Washington D.C., AMERIKA SERIKAT: The World Bank Publisher.

Stern, N. 2006. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Suroso, Djoko dan Ibnu Sofyan. 2009. Vulnerability of The Northern Coast of Java, Indonesia to Climate Change and The Need of Planning to Response. Dipresentasikan pada International Conference of Urban and Regional Planning, Bandung, Indonesia, 12-13 November, 2009.

Widhiyanti, Ni Nyoman Sri. 2007. Perubahan Iklim dan Dampaknya Bagi Kehidupan. Dalam http://walhibali.org/terbaru%20/perubahan-iklim-dan-dampaknya-bagi-kehidupan.html




Copyright © 2016 Journal of Regional and City Planning

Creative Commons License
This work licensed under CC-BY-NC, a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Visitor Counter