Bentuk Implementasi Konsep Kota Taman di Jepang: Konseptualisasi dan Prinsip Perencanaan Dalam Uraian Sejarah

Novi Maulida Ni’mah, Sudaryono Sudaryono

Abstract


 

Penelitian ini meninjau generalisasi sejarah implementati konsep Garden City di Jepang. Dengan menggunakan metode analisis isi, penelitian ini menjelaskan, menginterpretasikan dan menemukan perubahan-perubahan fenomena tersebut dari berbagai literature. Implementasi konsep Garden City di Jepang berkaitan dengan sejarah terbukanya Jepang setelah Restorasi Meiji.Pelajaran yang dapat ditarik dari prinsip-prinsip Jepang seperti ‘Semangat Jepang Kuno’ dan ‘Memerintah untuk Kepentingan Masyarakat’ menjadi suatu alternatif untuk pembangunan sesuai dengan konteks Garden City di Jepang. Diawali dengan prinsip ruralisasi sebagai suatu solusi untuk masalah perkotaan dan perdesaan, konsep Garden City kemudian berkembang menjadi solusi untuk ketersediaan rumah sebagai akibat dari pembangunan kota. Tidak digunakannya lagi prinsip self contained-self sufficient berakibat pada tata guna lahan dan komunitas dengan karakter yang homogen.

Kata kunci: sejarah, konsep Garden City concept, prinsip-prinsip perencanaan, Jepang

 

This research reviews the generalization of the historical description of the Garden City concept implementation in Japan. By using content analysis method, this research explained, interpreted, and found its changes phenomena which found from many related literatures. The implementation of Garden City concept in Japan is related from the history of Japan’s opening after the Meiji Restoration. Lessons learned based on the Japan principle ‘Spirit of the Old Japan’ and ‘Rule For the Benefit of the People’ became the new form of knowledge in the context of alternative solution for development as it seen in the conceptualization development of the Garden City in Japan’s context. Started with the ruralization principle as a solution step for both the urban and rural problems, the Garden City concept then developed in to suburban settlement area as a solution for the housing availability caused by the city development. By no longer using the self contained-self sufficient principle, there was an impact in the land use and the community that formed with the homogeneous characteristic.

Keywords: history, Garden City concept, planning principles, Japan.



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