Pola Distribusi Spasial Minimarket di Kota–Kota Kecil

Astri Aulia S, Adisti Midella Elmanisa, Myra P Gunawan

Abstract


Keterbatasan lahan di kota-kota besar mengakibatkanterjadinya pergeseran lokasi ritel modern (minimarket) ke pinggiran kota dan kota-kota kecil. Penelitian ini mengamati perkembangan minimarket pada kota-kota kecil di wilayah Bandung Metropolitan Area berdasarkan fungsi spesifiknya, yaitu sebagai kawasan pemerintahan (Soreang), kawasan pendidikan dan komersial (Tanjungsari) dan kawasan pariwisata (Lembang). Selain berdampak positif pada kondisi ekonomi kawasan, perkembangan sporadis minimarket juga berdampak negatif, seperti persoalan guna lahan, transportasi, dan persaingan ekonomi terhadap pasar tradisional. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi dampak ekonomi keberadaan ritel modern di kota-kota kecil dengan mengidentifikasi sistem penyediaan (supply) dan permintaan (demand) pada wilayah studi. Hasilnya menunjukan bahwa terdapat tumpang tindih area pelayanan antara minimarket dan pasar tradisional; kedekatan lokasi minimarket dengan ritel tradisional telah memberikan dampak pada usaha dan kinerja ritel tradisional; perilaku belanja masyarakat di kota-kota kecil belum mengancam keberlangsungan ritel tradisional;serta ritel-ritel modern dengan jenis toserba dan supermarket memberikan peluang yang lebih besar dalam memberikan media pemasaran bagi produk masyarakat lokal dibandingkan dengan minimarket.

Kata kunci: pengecer modern dan tradisional, system permintaan dan penawaran, perekonomian kota-kota kecil

 

Limited land in large cities causes a shift of modern retail stores (minimarket) to the fringe areas and small cities. This study observed the development of minimarket in small towns around the Urban Area of Bandung Raya. Three areas were chosen based on their specific functions, i.e., administration (Soreang), education and commerce (Tanjungsari), and tourism (Lembang). In addition to positive impact to the economy of the region, the development of minimarket has negative impact such as problems in land use, transportation and economic competition with traditional market. This study aims at identifying the economic impact of modern retail development in small towns by identifying the supply and demand system of minimarket in selected cities. The results shows (1) the overlapping service area between minimarket with traditional market, (2) the proximity of minimarket with traditional market has affected the business performance of traditional markets, (3) shopping behavior of people in small towns has shifted from traditional market to minimarket -as a complementer market-and have not been a threat to the sustainability of traditional markets yet, (4) modern retailers in the form of convenience stores (toserba) and supermarkets have more opportunity to become outlets for local products compared with minimarket.

Keywords: modern retail, traditional retail, supply and demand, small towns economic


 


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