Optimum Fermentation Process for Red Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium and Gracillaria verrucosa


  • Mujizat Kawaroe Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga Campus, Bogor 16680,
  • Dahlia Wulan Sari Surfactant and Bioenergy Research Centre, Bogor Agricultural University, Baranang Siang Campus, Bogor 16143
  • Junkwon Hwangbo Research Institute of Science and Technology POSCO, Kumho-dong, Gwangyang City, Jeollanam-do,
  • Joko Santoso Department of Fish Processing, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga Campus, Bogor 16680




Red macroalgae have the potential to be processed into bioethanol due to their high carbohydrate and low lignin content. Gelidium latifolium and Gracilaria verrucosa are red macroalgae commonly found in Indonesian seas. Sometimes an over-supply of red macroalgae is rejected by the food industry, which opens up opportunities for others uses, e.g. for producing bioethanol. The objectives of this research were to analyze the influence of sulfuric acid concentration on hydrolysis of G. latifolium and G. verrucosa and to calculate the optimum fermentation process to produce bioethanol. G. latifolium and G. verrucosa were hydrolyzed using H2SO4 at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, at a temperature of 121C and a pressure of 1.5 bar for 45 minutes. The process of fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in anaerobic conditions for 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. The results show that the optimum H2SO4 concentrations to hydrolyze G. latifolium and G. verrucosa were 1% and 2% respectively. The number of S. cerevisiae cells in hydrolysate G. latifolium and G. verrucosa increased in the third adaptation. S. cerevisiae can convert sugar from G. latifolium and G. verrucosa into bioethanol through fermentation. The highest bioethanol yields were achieved on days five and six. Therefore, red macroalgae can be seen as a potential raw material for bioethanol production.


Download data is not yet available.


Goh C.S. & Lee K.T., A Visionary and Conceptual Macroalgae-Based Third-Generation Bioethanol (TGB) Biorefinery in Sabah, Malaysia as an Underlay for Renewable and Sustainable Development, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev, 14, pp. 842-848, 2010.

John, R.P., Anisha, G.S., Nampoothiri, K.M. & Pandey, A., Micro and Macroalgal Biomass: A Renewable Source for Bioethanol, Bioresour. Technol., 102, pp. 186-193, 2011.

Yanagisawa, M., Kanami, N., Osamu A., & Kiyohiko, N., Production of High Concentrations of Bioethanol from Seaweeds that Contain Easily Hydrolysable Polysaccharides, Proc. Biochem, 46, pp. 2111-2116, 2011.

Jang, S.S., Shirai, Y., Uchida, M. & Wakisaka, M., Production of Mono Sugar from Acid Hydrolysis of Seaweed, Biotechnol, 11(8), pp. 1953-1963, 2012b.

Meinita, M.D.N., Hong, Y.K. & Jeong, G.T., Detoxification of Acidic Catalyzed Hydrolysate of Kappaphycusalvarezii (Cottonii), Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 35, pp. 93-98, 2012b.

Park, J.H., Hong, J.Y., Jang, H.C., Oh, S.G., Kim, S.H., Yoon, J.Y. & Kim, Y.J., Use of Gelidiumamansii as a Promising Resource for Bioethanol: A Practical Approach for Continuous Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis and Fermentation, Bioresour Technol, 108, pp. 83-88, 2012.

Jang, J.S., Cho, Y.K., Jeong, G.T., & Kim, S.K., Optimization of Saccharification and Ethanol Production by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) from Seaweed, Saccharinajaponica, Bioprocess Biosyst Eng., 35, pp. 11-18, 2012a.

Mouradi-Givernaud, A., Givernaud, T., Morvan, H. & Cosson, J., Agar from Gelidium latifolium (Rhodophyceae, Gelidiales): Biochemical Composition and Seasonal Variations, Bot. Mar, 35, pp. 153-159, 1992.

Msuya, F.E. & Neori, A., Ulvareticulata and Gracilariacrassa: Macroalgae that Can Biofilter Effluent from Tidal Fishponds in Tanzania, Western Indian Ocean J Mar Sci., 1, pp. 117-126, 2002.

Yenig1/4l, M., Seasonal Changes in the Chemical and Gelling Characteristics of Agar From Gracilaria verrucosa Collected in Turkey, Hydrobiol, 260/261, pp. 627-631, 1993.

Matanjun, P., Mohamed, S., Mustapha, N.M. and Muhammad, K., Nutrient content of tropical edible seaweeds, Eucheuma cottonii, Caulerpa lentillifera and Sargassum polycystum. Journal of Applied Phycology, 21, pp. 75-80, 2009.

Jeong, T.S., Kim, Y.S. & Oh, K.K., Two-Stage Acid Saccharification of Fractioned Gelidiumamansii Minimizing the Sugar Decomposition, Bioresour. Technol., 102, pp. 10529-10534, 2011.

Jeong, T.S., Kim, Y.S. & Oh, K.K., A Kinetic Assessment of Glucose Production from Pretreated Gelidiumamansii by Dilute Acid Hydrolysis, Renewable Energy, 42, pp. 207-211, 2012.

Setyaningsih, D., Windarwati, S., Khayati, I., Muna, N., & Hernowo P., Acid Hydrolysis Technique and Yeast Adaptation to Increase Red Macroalgae Bioethanol Production, Int. J. Environ. Bioener, 3(2), pp. 98-110, 2012.

Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC), Official Analysis of The Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Virginia: The Association of Official Analytical Chemist, 1995.

Van Soest, P.J., Use of Detergents in the Analysis of Fibrous Feeds. II. A Rapid Method for the Determination of Fiber and Lignin, J. Ass. Offic. Anal. Chem, 46, pp. 829-835,1963.

Miller, G.L., Use of Dinitrosalicylic Acid Reagent for Determination of Reducing Sugar. Analytical Chemistry, 31, pp. 426-428, 1959.

Norziah, M.H., & Ching, C.Y., Nutritional Composition of Edible Seaweed Gracilariachanggi, Food Chemistry, 68, pp. 69-76, 2000.

Kumar, S., Gupta, R., Kumar, G., Sahoo, D. & Kuhad, R.C., Bioethanol Production from Gracilariaverrucosa, a Red Alga, in a Biorefinery Approach, Bioresour Technol, 135, pp. 150-156, 2013

Horn, S.J., Bioenergy from Brown Seaweeds, Thesis for Doctor Engineer, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, pp. 5-29, 2010.

Fasahati, P. & Liu, J.J., Process Simulation of Bioethanol Production from Brown Algae, Proceeding 8th IFAC Symposium on Advanced Control of Chemical Processes, pp. 597-602, 2012.

Paepatung, N., Nopharatana, A., & Songkasiri, W., Bio-methane Potential of Biological Solid Materials and Agricultural Wastes, Asian Journal of Energy and Environment, 10(01), pp. 19-27, 2009.

Kim, G.S., Shin, M.K., Kim, Y.J., Oh, K.K., Kim, J.S., Ryu, H.J. & Kim, K.H., Method of Producing Biofuel Using Sea Algae, WO 2008/105618 Al. World Intellectual Property Organization, 2010.

Jeong, G.T. & Park, D.H., Production of Sugar and Levulinic Acid from Marine Biomass Gelidiumamansii, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 161, pp. 41-53, 2010.

Yeon, J.H., Lee, S.E., Choi, W.Y., Kang, D.H., Lee, H.Y. & Jung, K.H., Repeated-Batch Operation of Surface-Aerated Fermentor for Bioethanol Production from the Hydrolysate of Seaweed Sargassum sagamianum, J. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 21(3), pp. 323-331, 2011.

Moat, A.G., Foster, J.W. & Spector, M.P., Microbial Physiology, 4th ed., NY, USA, Wiley-Liss New York 2002.




How to Cite

Kawaroe, M., Sari, D. W., Hwangbo, J., & Santoso, J. (2016). Optimum Fermentation Process for Red Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium and Gracillaria verrucosa. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 47(6), 674-687. https://doi.org/10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2015.47.6.7