Identification of Contact Stiffness between Brake Disc and Brake Pads Using Modal Frequency Analysis


  • Haizhou Ding School of Automotive Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, No. 1 Hope Avenue, Yancheng, 224051,
  • Qiang Zhu School of Automotive Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, No. 1 Hope Avenue, Yancheng, 224051,
  • Hongming Lyu School of Automotive Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, No. 1 Hope Avenue, Yancheng, 224051,



brake pressure, disc brake, mode frequency, mode order, normal contact stiffness, parameter identification


The contact stiffness between brake disc and brake pads is a vital parameter that affects brake NVH performance through increasing the system stiffness and modal frequencies. In order to establish accurate contact behavior between brake parts for further research on precise modeling of disc brakes, a method of identifying the normal contact stiffness of a floating caliper disc brake was developed in this study based on modal frequency testing and finite element analysis. The results showed that contact stiffness increases with brake pressure due to compression of the friction material and increases with the disc mode order at lower-order modes but almost stays invariant at higher-order ones due to contact area variation.


Download data is not yet available.


L1/4, H., Yang, K., Shangguan, W., Yin, H. & Yu D., Rendering Optimal Design under Various Uncertainties: A Unified Approach and Application to Brake Instability Study, Engineering Computations, 37(1), pp. 345-367, 2019.

Zhang, Z., Oberst, S.M. & Lai, J.C.S., Instability Analysis of Brake Squeal with Uncertain Contact Conditions, Proceedings of 25th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (ICSV 25), Hiroshima, pp. 4031-4038, 2018.

Renault, A., Massa, F., Lallemand, B. & Tison, S., Experimental Investigations for Uncertainty Quantification in Brake Squeal Analysis, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 367, pp. 37-55, 2016.

Abdo, J.A., Investigation of Contact Stiffness and Its Relation to Friction-Induced Noise and Vibration, International Journal of Modelling and Simulation, 26(4), pp. 295-302, 2006.

Fuadi, Z., Adachi, K., Ikeda, H., Naito, H. & Kato, K., Effect of Contact Stiffness on Creep-Groan Occurrence on a Simple Caliper-Slider Experimental Model, Tribology Letters, 33(3), pp. 169-178, 2009.

Kim, S.H. & Jang, H., Friction and Vibration of Brake Friction Materials Reinforced with Chopped Glass Fibers, Tribology Letters, 52(2), pp. 341-349, 2013.

Lee, M.W., Shin, M.W., Lee, W.K. & Jang, H., The Correlation between Contact Stiffness and Stick-Slip of Brake Friction Materials, Wear, 302(1-2), pp. 1414-1420, 2013.

Ballinger, R.A., A Discussion of Complex Eigenvalue Analytical Methods as They Relate to the Prediction of Brake Noise, SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems, 9(1), pp. 183-198, 2016.

Hertz, H., On the Contact of Elastic Solids, Journal fur die Reine und Angewandte Mathematik, 92, pp. 156-171, 1882.

Greenwood J.A. & Williamson J.B.P., Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces, Proceedings of the Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 295(1442), pp. 300-319, 1966.

Greenwood, J.A. & Williamson, J.B.P., Developments in the Theory of Surface Roughness, Proceedings of the 4th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Lyon, pp. 167-177, 1977.

Junior, M.T., Gerges, S.N.Y. & Jordan, R., Analysis of Brake Squeal Noise Using the Finite Element Method: A Parametric Study, Applied Acoustics, 69(2), pp. 147-162, 2008.

Junior, M.T., Gerges, S.N.Y. & Cordioli, J., Analysis of Brake Squeal Noise Using FEM Part I: Determination of Contact Stiffness between Rotor and Pads, SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-3330, 2004.

Sherif, H., Blouet, J., Cretegny, J., Gras, R. & Vialard, G., Experimental Investigation of Self-excited Squeal, SAE Technical Paper 892451, 1989.

Giannini, O., & Sestieri, A., Predictive Model of Squeal Noise Occurring on a Laboratory Brake, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 296(3), pp. 583-601, 2006.

Oura, Y., Kurita, Y., Nishizawa, Y. & Kosaka, K., Comparison of Pad Stiffness under Static Pressure and Vibration with Small Amplitude, SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1818, 2012.

Goto, Y., Amago, T., Chiku, K., Matsushima, T. & Ishihara, T., Experimental Identification Method for Interface Contact Stiffness of FE Model for Brake Squeal, Proceedings of the IMechE Conference on Braking 2004: Vehicle Braking and Chassis Control, London, pp. 143-155, 2004.

Sinha, A., Vibration of Mechanical Systems, Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, 2010.

Tonazzi, D., Massi, F., Salipante, M., Baillet, L. & Berthier, Y., Estimation of the Normal Contact Stiffness for Frictional Interface in Sticking and Sliding Conditions, Lubricants, 7(7), p. 56, 2019. DOI: 10.3390/lubricants 7070056.

Zheng, Y., Hou, Z. & Rong, Y., The study of Fixture Stiffness - Part II: Contact Stiffness Identification between Fixture Components, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 38(1-2), pp. 19-31, 2008.

Zhao, G., Xiong, Z., Jin, X., Hou, L. & Gao, W., Prediction of Contact Stiffness in Bolted Interface with Natural Frequency Experiment and FE Analysis, Tribology International, 127, pp. 157-164, 2018.

Sherif, H.A., Parameters Affecting Contact Stiffness of Nominally Flat Surfaces, Wear, 145(1), pp. 113-121, 1991.

Pharr, G.M., Oliver, W.C. & Brotzen, F.R., On the Generality of the Relationship Among Contact Stiffness, Contact Area, and Elastic Modulus during Indentation, Journal of Materials Research, 7(3), pp. 613-617, 1992.




How to Cite

Ding, H., Zhu, Q., & Lyu, H. (2020). Identification of Contact Stiffness between Brake Disc and Brake Pads Using Modal Frequency Analysis. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 52(4), 468-480.