Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Reconstituted Sand under Different Stress Paths in True Triaxial Tests

Authors

  • Hasbullah Nawir Geotechnical Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132,
  • Bagus Eko Prasetyo Civil Engineering Department, Sembilanbelas November University, Jalan Pemuda No. 399 Kolaka, South East Sulawesi,
  • Andhika Sahadewa Geotechnical Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132,

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2020.52.6.10

Keywords:

reconstituted sand, true triaxial test, stress path.

Abstract

To improve the geotechnical stress"?strain analysis, the stress"?strain behavior of geomaterial under general three-dimensional stress conditions prevailing in the field need to be captured. The true triaxial apparatus is an enhanced version of the conventional triaxial apparatus, which allows to simulate stresses by applying loadings independently in 3 orthogonal directions. This study evaluated the strength and deformation behavior of Bangka sand under true triaxial test conditions. The test specimens were prepared by means of the multi-sieve sand pluviation method. Various true triaxial test stress paths were applied under axial compression, lateral extension, axial extension, and lateral compression with the objective of understanding and developing the empirical correlation of coarse-grained soil strength parameters in axial compression stress paths related to other stress paths. The test results showed that an increase in the value of b, the parameter used to quantify the relative magnitude of the intermediate principal stress to the other principal stresses, resulted in an increase of the internal friction angle and a decrease of the peak stress ratio. In addition it was observed that the Lade-Duncan failure criterion fitted the results of this study better than other failure criteria, namely the extended von Mises, Mohr-Coulomb, and Matsuoka-Nakai failure criteria.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ko, H.Y. & Scott, R.F., A New Soil Testing Apparatus, Geotechnique, 17(1), pp. 40-57, 1967.

Sture, S., Development of Multiaxial Cubical Test Device with Porewater Pressure Monitoring Facilities, Report No. VPI-E-79.18, Dept. Civil Eng., Virginia Poly. Inst. & State U., Blacksburg, VA, 1979. (Technical Report).

Farias, M.M. & Azevedo, R.F., Cubical Triaxial Test in Dry Sand, Proceeding of the VIII Brazilian Congress of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (CBMSEF), Porto Alegre, Vol. 2, Brazilian Association of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Sao Paulo, Brazil, pp. 33-44, August 1986.

Reddy, K.R., Saxena, S.K. & Budiman, J.S., Development of a True Triaxial Testing Apparatus, Geotechnical Testing Journal, 15(2), pp. 89-105, 1992.

Reis, R.M., Azevedo, R.F., Botelho, B.S. & Vilar, O.M., Performance of a Cubical Triaxial Apparatus for Testing Saturated and Unsaturated Soils, Geotechnical Testing Journal, 34(3), pp. 177-185, 2011.

Prashant, A. & Penumadu, D., Effect of Intermediate Principal Stress on Overconsolidated Kaolin Clay, J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE, 3(284), pp. 284-292, 2014.

Green, C.S., Strength and Deformation of a Sand Measured in an Independent Stress Control Cell. Proceeding of The Roscoe Memorial Symposium on Stress Strain Behavior of Soils, Cambridge, UK, March 29-31, R.H.G. Parry, Ed., G.T., Foulisand Co. Ltd., Henley-on-Thames, UK, pp. 285-323, 1971.

Lade, P.V., The Stress Strain and Strength Characteristics of Cohesionless Soils, PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley CA, 1972.

Matsuoka, D.A., Sun, D.A., Ando, M., Kogane, A. & Fukuzawa, N., Deformation and Strength of Unsaturated Soil by True Triaxial Test, Proc. of Second International Conf. on Unsaturated Soils, Vol. 1, Beijing, China, International Academic Publisher, pp. 410-415, August 1998.

Hoyos, L.R., Jr. & Macari, E.J., Development of a Stress/Suction-Controlled True Triaxial Testing Device for Unsaturated Soils, Geotech Test J., 24(1), pp. 5-13, 2001.

Hoyos, L.R., Laikram, A. & Puppala, A.J., A Novel True Triaxial Apparatus for Testing Unsaturated Soils Under Suction-Controlled Multi-Axial Stress States, Proc. 16th Int. Conf. of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Eng., Osaka, Japan, Sept. 12-16, ISSMGE, London, pp. 387-390, 2015.

Wood, D.M., Explorations of Principal Stress Space with Kaolin in a True Triaxial Apparatus, Geotechnique, 25(4), pp. 783-797, 1975.

Yin, H.J. & Kumruzzaman, Md., The Stress-Strain-Strenght Behaviour of a Completely Decomposed Granite Soil Using a New Advanced True Triaxial Testing System, International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics, IACMAG, pp. 1571-1579, 2008.

Nakai, T., Matsuoka, H., Okuno, N. & Tsuzuki, K., True Triaxial Tests on Normally Consolidated Clay and Analysis of the Observed Shear Behavior Using Elastoplastic Constitutive Models, Soils and Foundations, 26(4), pp. 67-78, 1986.

Callisto, L. & Calabresi, G., Mechanical Behaviour of a Natural Soft Clay, Geotechnique, 48(4), pp. 495-513, 1998.

Anantanasakul, P. & Kaliakin, V.N., Simulations Of 3-D Drained Behavior of Normally Consolidated Clay Using Elastoplastic Models, In R. Hryciw, A. Athanasopoulos-Zekkos N. Yesiller (Eds.), GeoCongress 2012, pp. 1076-1085, 2012.

Ye, G.L., Sheng, J.R. & Wang, J.H., Automated True Triaxial Apparatus and its Application to Over-consolidated Clay, Geotechnical Testing Journal, 35(4), pp. 1-12, 2012.

Wang, Q. & Lade, P.V., Shear Banding in True Triaxial Tests and Its Effect on Failure in Sand, J. Eng. Mech., 127(8), pp. 754-761, 2001.

Yamada, Y. & Ishihara, K., Anisotropic Deformation Characteristics of Sand Under Three-Dimensional Stress Conditions, Soils and Foundations, 19(2), pp. 79-94, 1979.

Lade, P.V., Rodriguez, N.M. & Van Dyck, E.J., Effect of Principal Stress Directioon 3D Failure Condition in Cross-Anisotropic Sand, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Eng., 140(2), pp. 362-363, 2013.

Lam, W. K. & Tatsuoka, F., Effects of Initial Anisotropic Fabric and ?2 on Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Sand, Soils and Foundations, 28(1), pp. 89-106, 1988.

Marlando, E.M.L., Development of True Triaxial Cell and Its Use in the Behavior Study of Stress and Strain Response of Tropical Clay Soil in Bandung, Master Thesis, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 2013. (Text in Indonesian)

Miura, S. & Toki, S., A Sample Preparation Methodand its Effect on Static and Cyclic Deformation Strength Properties of Sand, Soils and Foundations, 22(1), pp. 61-77, 1982.

Hong, W.P. & Lade, P.V., Elasto-plastic Behavior of K0-consolidated Clay in Torsion Shear Tests, Soils and Foundations, 29(2), pp. 127-140, 1989.

Lade, P.V. & Kirkgard, M.M., Effects of Stress Rotation and Changes of b-values on Cross-anisotropic Behavior of Natural K0-consolidated Soft Clay, Soils and Foundations, 40(6), pp. 93-105, 2000.

Zhang, Y., Zhu, J. & Zhang, K., True Triaxial Experiments of Coarse-grained Soils, Proceeding of the 20th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, pp. 477-481, 2010.

Lade, P.V. & Duncan, J.M., Cubical Triaxial Tests on Cohesionless Soils, Journal of The Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, 99(10), pp. 793-812, 1973.

Shi, W.C., Zhu, J.G., Chiu, C. F. & Liu, H.L., Strength and Deformation Behaviour of Coarse-grained Soils by True Triaxial Test, J. Cent. South Univ. Technol., 17(5), pp. 1095-1102, October 2010.

Hardin, B.O., The Nature of Stress Stain Behavior of Soils, Proceedings of the ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Division Specialty Conference, pp. 3-90, 1978.

Hardin, B.O. & Drnevich, V.P., Shear Modulus and Damping in soils: Measurement and Parameter Effects (Terzaghi Lecture), Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 98(6), pp. 603-624, 1972.

Oztoprak, S. & Bolton, M.D., Stiffness of Sands Through a Laboratory Test Database, Geotechnique, 63(1), pp. 57-74, 2013.

Ng, T.T., Effect of Stress Path on A Two-Size Ellipsoidal Specimen, 16th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference, University of Washington, Seattle, 2003.

Wang, J., The Stress-Strain and Strength Characteristics of Portaway Sand. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham, 2005.

Downloads

Published

2020-11-30

Issue

Section

Articles