Extreme Significant Wave Height Map of Indonesia Based on SEAFINE and ERA5 Database
Keywords:ERA5, wave hindcast, SEAFINE, Indonesia, significant wave height
Significant wave height, , is one of the most utilized ocean parameters. Extreme with 1-yearly and 100-yearly return periods are required for the design of most offshore structures. A previous study by Wurjanto, et al. (2020) attempted to utilize the SEAFINE database to develop extreme maps of Indonesian seas. However, SEAFINE does not cover the eastern Indonesian seas. This study analyzed the extreme values from ERA5 data for Indonesian seas and utilized the data to complete the extreme map previously developed by Wurjanto, et al. (2020). The ERA5 data on the eastern Indonesian seas as well as the central and western seas were extracted for validation purposes. The ERA5 extreme value was less than half the value compared to the SEAFINE-based results in most intersecting areas. For the development of the map, we took the SEAFINE-based map from Wurjanto et al., which covers the western and middle Indonesian seas, and filled the eastern part with extreme ERA5 data. It was found that a wave height multiplying factor of 2.0 was the most suitable for ERA5 in the developed map to make a seamless wave height transition from SEAFINE to ERA5 data.
Goda, Y., Random Seas and Design of Maritime Structures, 15, World Scientific, 2000.
Wurjanto, A., Mukhti, J.A., Wirasti, H.D. & Widyaningtyas, Y.E., Extreme Significant Wave Height of Western and Central Indonesian Seas and Its Correlation with ISO 19901-1:2015, Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 52(3), pp. 331-342, 2020.
National Weather Forecast Service, Hourly Weather Forecast Graph. Available at https://forecast.weather.gov/gridpoint.php?site=key& TypeDefault=graphical (21 December 2019).
Japan Meteorological Agency, Wave Analysis Chart - Seas Around Japan @ 00UTC, 21 Dec. 2019. Available at https://www.data.jma.go.jp/ gmd/waveinf/chart/awjp_e.html (21 December 2019).
Det Norske Veritas, Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C101: Design of Offshore Steel Structures, General (LRFD Method), 2011.
American Petroleum Institute, API Recommended Practice 2A-WSD 22nd Edition: Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms - Working Stress Design. API Publishing Services, 2014.
ISO/TC 67 Committee of International Organization for Standardization, ISO 19901-1:2015 (E) Petroleum and Gas Industries - Specific Requirements for Offshore Structures - Part 1: Metocean design and operating considerations, ISO, Geneva, 2015.
Loehr, H., Boulay, S.O.C., Warner, W.J., Johnson, D., Beamlsey, B. & McComb, P., Development of a Low Cost Wave Buoy by Utilising Smartphone Technology, Coast and Ports, pp.116-120, 2013.
Liang, B., Gao, H., & Shao, Z., Characteristics of Global Waves based on the Third-generation Wave Model SWAN, Marine Structures, 64, pp. 35-53, 2019.
Wiese, A., Staneva J., Schulz-Stellenfleth, J., Behrens, A., Fenoglio-Marc, L. & Bidlot, J.R., Synergy of Wind Wave Model Simulations and Satellite Observations during Extreme Events. Ocean Science, 14, pp. 1503-1521, 2018.
Oceanweather, Inc., SEAFINE Southern South China Sea, Makassar Strait, Java Sea, Available at https://www.oceanweather.com/metocean/ seafine/index.html. (6 June 2019)
CNN Indonesia, BNPB: All Tsunami Deterction Buoys in Indonesia were Broken, available at https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/ 20180930160115-20-334439/bnpb-seluruh-buoy-deteksi-tsunami-di-indonesia-rusak. (15 July 2020)
Muliati, Y., Tawekal, R.L., Wurjanto, A., Kelvin, J. & Pranowo, W.S., Wind Wave Modeling in Natuna Sea: A Comparison Among SWAN, SEAFINE, and ERA-INTERIM, International Journal of Geomate, 16(54), pp. 176-184, 2019.
Raghupathi, L., Randell D., Jonathan, P. & Ewans, K.C., Consistent Design Criteria for South China Sea with a Large-scale Extreme Value Model, Offshore Technology Conference Asia, Malaysia, 2016.
Hersbach, H., Bell, B., Berrisford, P., Horanyi, A., Sabater J.M., Nicolas, J., Radu, R., Schepers, D., Simmons, A., Soci, C. & Dee, D. Global Reanalysis: Goodbye ERA-Interim, Hello ERA5. ECMWF Newsletter, 159, pp. 17-24, Spring 2019.
Mayeetae, Z., Liew, M.S. & John, K.V., Parametric Study on Environmetal Loads of Hindcast and Measured Full Scale Data, National Postgraduate Conference, IEEE, Malaysia, 2011.
Copernicus Climate Data Store, ERA5 Hourly Data on Single Levels from 1979 To Present. Available at https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#! /dataset/reanalysis-era5-single-levels?tab=overview (23 December 2019).
Det Norske Veritas, Offshore Standard DNV-RP-C205: Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads, 2010.
The National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas), Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap (ICCSR) Scientific Basis: Analysis and Projection of Sea Level Rise and Extreme Weather Events, 2010.
OkeNews, High Waves up to 5 Meters Halts the Ferry Operation in Sunda Strait. Available at https://news.okezone.com/view/2017/11/29/1/45049/ gelombang-tinggi-hingga-5-meter-hambat-arus-penyeberangan-kapal-ferry-di-selat-sunda. (15 July 2020)
Sofian, L. & Wijanarto, A.B., Simulation of Significant Wave Height Climatology using WaveWatch III, International Journal of Geoinformatics, 6(4), pp. 13-19, Dec. 2010.
Kompas.com, BMKG: Beware of High Waves until Tonight, Here is the List. Available at https://news.okezone.com/view/2017/11/29/1/45049/ gelombang-tinggi-hingga-5-meter-hambat-arus-penyeberangan-kapal-ferry-di-selat-sunda. (15 July 2020)