Preparation of Graphene Oxide from Expanded Graphite at Different Microwave Heating Times


  • Ahmed A Moosa Department of Materials Engineering Technology, Technical Engineering College ? Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad,
  • Zainab H. Mahdi Department of Building and Construction Technology Engineering, Technical Engineering College? Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad
  • Mohammed A. Mutar Department of Materials Engineering Technology, Technical Engineering College ? Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad,



exfoliated graphite, graphite intercalation compounds, graphene oxide, Hummer?s method; graphite layers, microwave heating


Exfoliated graphite (EG) was prepared by mixing graphite with HNO3 and KMnO4 at weight ratio 1:2:1 using microwave heating at times 20, 60, 80 and 120 sec. Graphene oxide (GO) was then prepared using EG as precursor by the modified Hummer?s method. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses showed successful conversion of EG into GO. The XRD results of the GO showed that the maximum interplanar distance (d-spacing) increased from 0.344 to 0.831 nm. The AFM showed a minimum thickness of 0.519 nm for a single layer of GO prepared from EG 80 sec. The XRD examination also showed an increase in the d-spacing between the GO layers after sonication compared to before sonication.


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How to Cite

Moosa, A. A., Mahdi, Z. H., & Mutar, M. A. (2021). Preparation of Graphene Oxide from Expanded Graphite at Different Microwave Heating Times . Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 53(3), 210305.