Comparison of Several Processing Methods in Preserving the Flavor Properties of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.) Fruit
Keywords:andaliman, drying, flavor, RSM, Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.
Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.) is a plant endemic to North Sumatra. Its fruit has a very specific citrus-like aroma, gives a tingling sensation and is commonly used for seasoning in Bataknese traditional cuisine. To extend the shelf life and preserve the quality of andaliman fruit, post-harvest handling is needed. Seven drying methods were applied and compared, i.e. sun, air, fluidized bed, oven, far infrared, freeze, and spray drying. Considering the physicochemical and sensory properties and efficiency, oven drying was selected for further study. The optimum condition for drying was temperature at 54 C for 8 h resulting in 0.67 desirability level based on the response surface method (RSM). Spray drying encapsulation of andaliman fruit extract was performed at an inlet temperature of 150 C with an extract to carrier ratio of 1:8. Maltodextrin (MD) and gum arabic (GA) with a ratio of 3:2 was chosen as the carrier agent. The quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) result showed that the encapsulated andaliman powder had a flavor that resembled fresh andaliman with a more pronounced taste, a citrus-like trigeminal sensation, and a sour floral citrusy aroma.
Wijaya, C.H., Napitupulu, F. I., Karnady, V., & Indariani, S., A Review of The Bioactivity and Flavor Properties of the Exotic Spice "Andaliman' (Z. acanthopodium DC.), Food Rev. Int., 35(1), pp. 1-19, 2019.
Spanier, A.H., Shahidi, F., Parliment, T.H., Mussinan, C., Ho, C.T. & Contis, E.T., Food Flavors and Chemistry: Advances of the New Millenium, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2001.
Nussinovitch, A., Hydrocolloid Applications: Gum Technology in the Food and Other Industries, Blackie Academic & Professional, 1997.
Krishnan, S., Bhosale, R., & Singhal, R.S., Microencapsulation of Cardamom Oleoresin: Evaluation of Blends of Gum Arabic, Maltodextrin and a Modified Starch as Wall Materials, Carbohydr. Polym., 61(1), pp. 95-102, 2005.
Rachmat, R., Hadipernata, M. & Sumangat, Prospect of Far Infra Red (FIR) Technology for Use in Drying Spices, Indonesian Center for Research and Development of Agricultural Postharvest, 22(1), pp. 31-37, 2010. (Text in Indonesian)
Hartuti, R.M. & Sinaga, N., Monograph Vol. 8: Red Pepper Drying, Indonesia Research Institute of Vegetable Crops, 1997. (Text in Indonesian)
Astuti, J., Utilization of Old Nutmeg (Myristica sp) Pericarp by Making Spice Blend Powder, Undergraduate Thesis, Food Technology and Nutrition, IPB University, Bogor, 2003. (Text in Indonesian)
Cochran, W. & Cox, G., Experimental Designs, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., 1957.
ASTM, Guidelines for the Selection and Training of Sensory Panel Members, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1981.
National Standard of Indonesia (SNI) No. 0004:2013: White pepper (Piper nigrum L.), 2013. (Text in Indonesian)
Decagon Devices Inc., Water Activity and Spices, Decagon Devices Inc, http://manuals.decagon.com/Application%20Notes/13961_Aw%20and%20Spices_Print.pdf, (11 November 2013).
Hutching, J., Food Color and Appearance, ed. 2, Aspen Publishing Inc, 1999.
Sriwichai, T., Sookwong, P., Siddiqui, M.W. & Sommano, S.R., Aromatic Profiling of Z. myriacanthum (Makwhaen) Essential Oils from Dried Fruits Using Different Initial Drying Techniques, Ind. Crops & Prod., 133, pp. 284-291, 2019.
Wijaya, C.H., Hadiprodjo, I.T., & Apriyantono A., Identification of Volatile Compounds and Key Aroma Compounds of Andaliman Fruit (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium), Food Sci. Biotechnol., 11(6), pp. 680-683, 2002.
Wijaya C.H., Isolation and Identification of Trigeminally Active Compound of Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.), Hayati, 7(3), pp. 91-95, 2000.
Bryant, B.P. & Mezine, I., Alkylamides that Produce Tingling Paresthesia Activate Tactile and Thermal Trigeminal Neurons, Brain Res., 842(2), pp. 452-460, 1999.
Reineccius, G.A., The Spray Drying of Food Flavors, Dry. Tech., 22(6), pp. 1289-1324, 2004.
Cai, Y.Z. & Croke, H., Production and Properties of Spray-dried, J. Food Sci., 65(6), pp. 1248-1252, 2000.
Yoshii, H, Soottitantawata, A., Liua, X-D, Atarashia, T., Furutaa, T., Aishima, S., Ohgawara, M., & Link, P., Flavor Release from Spray-dried Maltodextrin/Gum Arabic or Soy Matrices as a Function of Storage Relative Humidity, Inn. Food Sci. & Emerging Tech. 2(1), pp. 55-61, 2001.
Yang, X., Aroma Constituents and Alkylamides of Red and Green Huajiao (Z. bungeanum and Z. schinifolium), J. Agri. & Food Chem., 56(5), pp. 1689-1696, 2008.