Geoelectrical Resistivity and Hydrogeochemical Contrast between the Area that Has BeenApplied with Fertilization for Long Duration and Non-Fertilization
Integrated geoelectrical resistivity, hydrogeochemical and soil properties analysis methods were used to study the area that has been applied with fertilization for long duration and non-Fertilization in Machang, North Kelantan. The Machang plain is covered with Quaternary fluvial sediments overlying granite bedrock. The drainage system is dendritic with the main river flowing into the South China Sea. In this study, the area was divided into two sites. Site-1 is the non-fertilized site, and Site-2 is the regularly-fertilized site. At shallow depth from the surface to depths of 75 cm a lower average geoelectrical resistivity values were obtained from the regularly fertilized site which has not been fertilized for the last ten months prior to the survey. The average resistivity values were around 0.366 times less in unfertilized sites. Residual nitrate and chloride were still present at the regularly chemically fertilized sites. At sites where no chemical fertilizer was added, the nitrate and chloride concentration were also found. These are due to the faces excretion of from the farm animals. The presence of nitrate and chloride content in pore water reduced the resistivity values. Thus despite low moisture content, the resistivity values to remain low. Normally, resistivity values are inversely proportional to moisture content for area with similar soil condition.
Islami, N., Samsudin, T. & Yusoff, I., Geoelectrical Resistivity and Hydrogeochemical Methods for Groundwater Investigation in the Agriculture Area: A Case Study from Machang - Malaysia, Full Paper (Proc.) in Int. Symp. & The 2nd AUN/SEED-Net Regional Conf. on GeoDisaster Mitigation in ASEAN, Bali, February, pp. 25- 26, 2010.
Yang, S.M., Li, F.N., Suo, D.R. & Guo, T.W., Effect of Long-Term Fertilization on Soil Productivity and Nitrate Accumulation in Gansu Oasis, Agricultural Sciences in China 2006, 5(1), 57-67, 2006.
Almasri, M.N. & Kaluarachchi, J.J., Assessment and management of long-term nitrate pollution of ground water in agriculture-dominated watersheds,J. of Hydrology, 295(1-4), 225-245, 10 August 2004.
Saadi, Z. & Maslouhi, A., Modeling nitrogen dynamics in unsaturated soils for evaluating nitrate contamination of the Mnasra groundwater, Advances in Environmental Research, 7, 803-823, 2003.
Cobbing, E.J. & Pitfield, P.E.J., The Granites of the South-East Asian tin belt, British Geological Survey, Overseas Memoir 10, 1992.
Saim, S., Groundwater protection in North Kelantan, Malaysia, SOURCE: Seminar on Water: Forestryand Landuse Perspectives (30-31 Mar 1999: Kuala Lumpur), Paper 11 (11p.), 1999.
Loke, M.H., Rapid 2-D Resistivity & IP inversion using the least-squares method, Geoelectrical Imaging 2D & 3D, Geotomo Software, Malaysia, www.geoelectrical.com, 2007.
Loke, M.H. & Barker R.D., Rapid least-squares inversion of apparent resistivity pseudosections using a quasi-Newton method, Geophysical Prospecting, 44, 131-152, 1996.
Das, B.M., Principles of geotechnical engineering, fifth edition, California State Univ., 2001.
Hamlin, W.K., Earth Dynamic Systems, 6th Ed., Bringham Young Univ., Provo, Utah, 1991.
Black, C.A., Methods of soil analysis, Part 1: Physical and mineralogical properties, The American Society of Agronomy, No. 9, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 1965.
Van Hoorn, J.W., Determining hydraulic conductivity with the inversed auger hole and infiltrometer methods. http://www.2.alterra.wur.n/webdocs/ilri-publicaties/Pub25/pub25-h4.2.pdf, accessed 2007.
U.S. EPA, Nitrogen-ammonia/nitrite/nitrate, water quality standards criteria summaries. GPO: 1980-341-082/107. Washington, DC, 1980.