Review on Unconventional Wind Energy


  • Gaurav Gulabani Department of Aeronautical and Automobile Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, 576104
  • Beegum Shahnaz Abdul Karim Department of Aeronautical and Automobile Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, 576104
  • Jayakrishnan Radhakrishnan Department of Aeronautical and Automobile Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, 576104
  • Satish Shenoy B Department of Aeronautical and Automobile Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, 576104
  • Mohammad Zuber Department of Aeronautical and Automobile Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, 576104



Floating Wind turbine, AWES, Highway Wind Turbines, LMWT


Fossil fuel is the major source of energy and is a fast depleting resource. The phenomenal increase in fossil fuel consumption has adversely affected carbon footprint impacting our environment. With strict environmental regulations in place, the focus towards renewable sources of energy is gaining momentum supported by recent advancement in technologies in wind, hydro and solar. Wind turbines were the first forms of clean energy has seen a major increase in power production. The site restrictions, have limited the wind turbine from being used to its maximum potential. In recent years, the concept of some unconventional methods is being proposed. In this review, the various types of wind turbines are emphasized with their recent advances and depicting the challenges faced in various aspects. The reviews contain details mainly about 4 types of wind turbines i.e. floating offshore wind turbine, airborne wind turbine, highway wind turbine systems and locomotive mounted wind turbine.


Download data is not yet available.


Chakraborty, S., Dutta, S. & Biswas, N., A Review Paper of Wind Energy, in National Conference on Advances & Research in Electrical System Technology, April, pp. 202-206, 2011.

Historical Energy Consumption Statistics, The Shift Project Data Portal, available: tspQvChart. ( 29 March 2019)

BP, 67th Edition Contents is One of the Most Widely Respected, Stat. Rev. World Energy, pp. 1-56, 2018.

REN21, Renewables 2016 Global Status Report, 2016.

L.W.E.C., Fried, Global Wind Statistics 2016, Glob. Wind Energy Counc., pp. 7-10, 2016.

Salari, M.E., Coleman, J., & Toal, D., Airborne Wind Energy"A Review, A.Y. Oral, B. Oral, Z. Banu (Eds.) , 3rd International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2015), pp. 81-92, 2017.

Konstantinidis, E.I. & Botsaris, P.N., Wind Turbines: Current Status, Obstacles, Trends and Technologies, IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 161(1), pp. 1-7, 2016.

Blaabjerg, F. & Ma, K., Wind Energy Systems, Proc. IEEE, 105(11), November 2017.

Tyler, E.Y., Daniel, M., Ilas, K. & So, A., Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2014, Int. Renew. Energy Agency, pp. 1-8, January 2015.

Thresher, R., Robinson, M. & Veers, P., Wind Energy Technology: Current Status and R & D Future, Natl. Renew. Energy Lab., pp. 1-21, 2008.

Cherubini, A., Papini, A., Vertechy, R. & Fontana, M., Airborne Wind Energy Systems: A Review of The Technologies, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 51, pp. 1461-1476, 2015.

Archer, C.L. & Caldeira, K., Global Assessment of High-Altitude Wind Power, Energies, 2(2), pp. 307-319, 2009.

AWE Community is Growing Fast, available: http://www.antonello awe-community-is-growing-fast.html. ( 01 April 2019)

Joshi, S. & Mathur, A., Generation of Electricity Using Wind Energy Produced Due to the Motion of Trains, J. Energy Technol. Policy, 2(7), pp. 19-24, 2012.

Hywind - Leading Floating Offshore Wind Solution -, available: (01 April 2019)

Skaare, B., Nielsen, F.G., Hanson, T.D., Yttervik, R., Havm",ller, O. & Rekdal, A., Analysis of Measurements and Simulations from the Hywind Demo Floating Wind Turbine, Wind Energy, 2015.

Grandum, S., Ishihara, Y. & Norway-Tokyo, I., An Overview/Status on Offshore Wind Situation in Japan.

Sacramento, H.R., BOEM Offshore Renewable Energy Workshop: Day 1 - Offshore Wind BOEM Offshore Renewable Energy Workshop: Opening Session, 2014.

World's Largest Floating Turbine Installed at Fukushima | Windpower Offshore," available at 1358221/worlds-largest-floating-turbine-installed-fukushima, (30 March 2019)

MHI floating 7MW Ready for Deployment | Windpower Offshore, Available at, (02 April 2019)

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Wind Power Technologies-PDF, (03 April 2019)

Anonymous, Wind Turbine Paper, AIMU Tech. Serv. Comm., no. January, pp. 1-24, 2012.

Butterfield, S., Musial, W. & Jonkman, J., Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, 2007.

Musial, W., Butterfield, S. & Boone, A., Feasibility of Floating Platform Systems for Wind Turbines Preprint, 23rd ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, Nevada, January 5-8, 2004.

Tran, T.T. & Kim, D.H., The Platform Pitching Motion of Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: A Preliminary Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 142, pp. 65-81, 2015.

Jonkman, J.M., Dynamics of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines-Model Development and Verification, Wind Energy, 12(5), pp. 459-492, 2009.

Newman, J., Marine Hydrodynamics, The MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1977.

Driscoll, F., Jonkman, J., Robertson, A., Sirnivas, S., Skaare, B. & Nielsen, F.G., Validation of a FAST Model of the Statoil-Hywind Demo Floating Wind Turbine, Energy Procedia, 94, pp. 3-19, 2016.

Barchowsky, A., Parvin, J.P., Reed, G.F., Korytowski, M.J. & Grainger, B.M., A Comparative Study of MPPT Methods for Distributed Photovoltaic Generation, 2012 IEEE PES Innov. Smart Grid Technol. ISGT 2012, pp. 1-7, 2012.

Sebastian, T. & Lackner, M., Analysis of the Induction Andwake Evolution of an Offshore Floating Wind Turbine, Energies, 5(4), pp. 968-1000, 2012.

Sebastian, T. & Lackner, M.A., Development of A Free Vortex Wake Method Code for Offshore Floating Wind Turbines, Renew. Energy, 46, pp. 269-275, 2012.

Babatunde, S.A. & Najafi, F.T., Overcoming the Challenges of Implementing Offshore Wind Farm Development in the U.S. through Education and Research, in proceeding of ASEE Southeastern Section-2018, Embry-Riddle Aero. Uni., Daytona Beach, FL, ASEE, 2018.

Luo, N., Pacheco, L., Vidal, Y. & Li, H., Smart Structural Control Strategies for Offshore Wind Power Generation with Floating Wind Turbines, Renew. Energy Power Qual. J., 1(10), pp. 1200-1205, 2012.

Isijokelu Gift, I., Lopez-Querol, S., Lajara Camacho, J. & Bhattacharya, S., Improved P-Y Curves for Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2016.

Jose, N.M. & Mathai, A., A Study on Lateral Deformation of Monopile of Offshore Wind Turbine due to Environmental Loads, Procedia Technol., 24, pp. 287-294, 2016.

Sway, Sway Concept, available: (30 March 2019)

Wang, C.M., Utsunomiya, T., Wee, S.C. & Choo, Y.S., Research on Floating Wind Turbines: A Literature Survey, IES J. Part A Civ. Struct. Eng., 3(4), pp. 267-277, 2010.

Archer, C.L., Delle Monache, L. & Rife, D.L., Airborne Wind Energy: Optimal Locations and Variability, Renew. Energy, 64, pp. 180-186, 2014.

Fagiano, L. & Milanese, M., Airborne Wind Energy: An Overview, pp. 3132-3143, 2014.

Archer, C., An Introduction to Meteorology for Airborne Wind Energy, in Ahrens, U. et al. (eds.), Airborne Wind Energy, Green Energy and Technology, 3, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 81-94, 2013.

Canale, M., Fagiano, L. & Milanese, M., Power Kites for Wind Energy Generation, IEEE Control Syst. Mag., 27, December, pp. 25-38, 2007.

Gera, K. & Grewal, J.S., Airborne Wind Energy: Optimal Locations and Power Produced, IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng. Ver. IV, 12(4), pp. 2278-1684, 2015.

Diehl, M., Airborne Wind Energy: Basic Concepts and Physical Foundations, in Ahrens, U. et al. (eds.), Airborne Wind Energy, Green Energy and Technology, 3, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 3-22, 2013

L1/4tsch, G., Airborne Wind Energy Network HWN500-Shouldering R& Din Co-operations, AWEC01, pp. 86-87, 2015.

Vance, E., Wind Power: High Hopes, Nature, 460(7255), pp. 564-566, 2009.

Masters, G.M., Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems, pp. 323-327, John Wiley & Sons, 2004.

Burton, T., Jenkins, N., Sharpe, D. & Bossanyi, E., Wind Energy Handbook, Second Edition, 2011.

X - Makani, available: (03 April 2019)

Technology - Ampyx Power B.V., available: https://www.ampyxpower. com/ technology. (03 April 2019)

Gupta, Y., Dumon, J. & Hably, A., Modeling and Control of A Magnus Effect-Based Airborne Wind Energy System in Crosswind Maneuvers, IFAC-PapersOnLine, 50(1), pp. 13878-13885, 2017.

aerial platforms | Omnidea |, available: https://www.omnidea. net/ aerial-platforms. (30 March 2019)

Mcdonald, A., Sola, P.J., Mcdonald, A.S. & Oterkus, E., A Lightweight Approach for Airborne Wind Turbine Drivetrains a Lightweight Approach for Airborne Wind Turbine Drivetrains, Poster session presented at European Wind Energy Association, EWEA, Paris, France, pp. 1-9, 2015.

Altaeros Energies Poised to Break World Record with Alaska High Altitude Wind Turbine - The World Renewable Energy Association (WoREA),, 2014, /altaeros_energies_poised_to_break_world_record_with_alaska_high/. (01 May 2019).

Shelke, K.N. & Duraphe, M.D., Magenn Air Rotor System (Mars), Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl., 2(6), pp. 1566-1568, 2012.

SkySails Group GmbH - Technology, available: https://www.skysails. info/en/power/technology/ (03 April 2019)

Mithun K.K. & Ashok, S., Design and Simulation of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for Highway Wind Power Generation, 7(1), pp. 251-259, 2015.

Al-Aqel, A.A., Lim, B.K., Mohd Noor, E.E., Yap, T.C. & Alkaff, S.A., Potentiality of Small Wind Turbines along Highway in Malaysia, 2016 International Conference on Robotics, Automation and Sciences, Ayer Keroh, pp. 1-6, , 2016. DOI: 10.1109/ICORAS.2016.7872634.

Zarkesh, A. & Heidari, M., Developing A New Application for Wind Generators in Highways, Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Comput. Intell. Commun. Syst. Networks, CICSyN 2013, pp. 279-282, 2013.

Wang, Y.J. & Zhang, K.M.A.X., Modeling Near-Road Air Quality Using a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model, CFD-VIT-RIT, 43(20), pp. 7778-7783, 2009.

Kim, Y. & Kim, Y., Quantification of Vehicle-induced Turbulence on Roadways Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation by Quantification of Vehicle-induced Turbulence on Roadways Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation, M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Chem. Eng. and Applied Chem., Uni. of Toronto, Canada, 2011.

Pandey, A. & Devi, R., Study and Development of Hybrid Wind Turbine for Highway Side Application, IJAREEIE, 6(9), pp. 6763-6767, 2017.

Wiegel, T.F. & Stevens, K.C., Traffic-Driven Wind Generator, US. Patent no. 7098553 B2, 2006.

Gene, E.M. & Fein, S., System and Method for Creating a Networked Infrastructure Distribution Platform of Small Fixed and Vehicle Based Wind Energy Gathering Devices along Roadways, US Patent No. 8791596, 2009

Abraham, V., Power Generation from a Moving Locomotive by Wind Turbine, in Proceedings of ERTEE-2018, Kalady, Kerala KTU,GRD Journals., March, pp. 20-26, 2018.

Ingram, G., Wind Turbine Blade Analysis Using the Blade Element Momentum Method, Version 1. School of Engineering, Durham University, UK. Jamal, A Baroudi, Venkata Dinavahi, 2005.

Ferdous, S.M., Bin Khaled, W., Ahmed, B., Salehin, S. & Ghani, E., Electric Vehicle with Charging Facility in Motion using Wind Energy, World Renew. Energy Congr. 2011-Sweden 8-13 May 2011, pp. 3629-3636, 2011.

Ripley, P.W., Wind Turbine for Electric Car, US Patent No. 8513828, 2013.

Tran, D., Vehicle Air Turbine, US Patent No. 2013/0043082 A1, 2013.

Owens, A.J., System for A Vehicle to Capture Energy from Environmental Air Movement, US Patent No. 8344534, 2013.

Diaz, J., Electrical Generator System for Capturing Wind Energy on a Moving Vehicle, US Patent No. 8618683, 2013.




How to Cite

Gulabani, G., Karim, B. S. A., Radhakrishnan, J., B, S. S., & Zuber, M. (2020). Review on Unconventional Wind Energy. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 52(4), 565-583.