Dioscorea hispida Starch as a Novel Natural Coagulant in Textile Wastewater Treatment


  • Mohd Suffian Yusoff School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, 14000
  • Farrandie Juni School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Zaber Ahmed School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Motasem Azaiza Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering (COE), A??Sharqiyah University (ASU), 400 Ibra, Oman
  • Hamidi Abdul Aziz School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia




The process of coagulation-flocculation using Dioscorea hispida starch as a natural coagulant was investigated for the purification of textile effluent from several dyeing and finishing mills. The major parameters tested were COD, turbidity, and color. Prior to conducting the experiments, the general physical characteristics of Dioscorea hispida starch were investigated. The optimal conditions, pH and coagulant dosage were assessed using a jar test. The results demonstrated that the Dioscorea hispida starch yield was 15.38% of Dioscorea hispida dry weight. Pulverizing of Dioscorea hispida mass also resulted in approximately 10-15% of impurities in the final product. The optimal pH of 7 resulted in maximum COD, turbidity and color reductions of 28%, 94% and 64% respectively. The optimum dosage of Dioscorea hispida starch of 2500 mg/L resulted in a maximum reduction of 22%, 93%, 63%, of COD, turbidity, and color, respectively. Overall, this study confirmed that the utilization of Dioscorea hispida starch as a natural coagulant offers a relatively good removal efficiency in textile wastewater treatment.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Mohd Suffian Yusoff, School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, 14000

Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Farrandie Juni, School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Final Year Student

Zaber Ahmed, School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia

PhD Researcher, School of Civil Engineering, University Sains Malaysia

Motasem Azaiza, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering (COE), AꞌSharqiyah University (ASU), 400 Ibra, Oman

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering (COE), AꞌSharqiyah University (ASU), 400 Ibra, Oman

Hamidi Abdul Aziz, School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia


Ali, H., Biodegradation of Synthetic Dyes ? A Review, Water. Air. Soil Pollut., 213(1-4), pp. 251-273, 2010. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-010-0382-4.

Holkar, C.R., Jadhav, A.J., Pinjari, D.V., Mahamuni, N.M. & Pandit, A.B., A Critical Review on Textile Wastewater Treatments: Possible Approaches, J. Environ. Manage., 182, pp. 351-366, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/ j.jenvman.2016.07.090.

Abu Bakar, N., Othman, N., Yunus, Z.M., Daud, Z., Salsabila Norisman, N. & Haziq Hisham, M., Physico-chemical Water Quality Parameters Analysis on Textile, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., 498(1), 2020. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/498/1/012077.

Shaikh, M.A., Water Conservation in Textile Industry, Pakistan Text. J., 58(11), pp. 48-51, 2009.

Bechtold, T., Mahmud-Ali, A., Ganglberger, E. & Geissler, S., Efficient Processing of Raw Material Defines the Ecological Position of Natural Dyes in Textile Production, Int. J. Environ. Waste Manag., 2(3), pp. 215-232, 2008. DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2008.018244.

Jegatheesan, V., Pramanik, B.K., Chen, J., Navaratna, D., Chang, C.Y. & Shu, L., Treatment of Textile Wastewater with Membrane Bioreactor: A Critical Review, Bioresour. Technol., 204, pp. 202-212, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.01.006.

Palio, S.M., Espinoza-Quines, F.R., Menes, A.N., Oliveira, C.C., Borba, F.H. & Silva, F.G., Toxicity Assessment from Electro-coagulation Treated-textile Dye Wastewaters by Bioassays, J. Hazard. Mater., 172(1), pp. 330-337, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.015.

Cao, J.S., Lin, J.X., Fang, F., Zhang, M.T. & Hu, Z.R., A New Absorbent by Modifying Walnut Shell for the Removal of Anionic Dye: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies, Bioresour. Technol., 163, pp. 199-205, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.04.046.

Palio, S.M., Espinoza-Quines, F.R., Menes, A.N., Manenti, D.R., Oliveira, C.C. and Garcia, J.C., Optimised Photocatalytic Degradation of a Mixture of Azo Dyes Using a TiO 2/H 2O 2/UV Process, Water Sci. Technol., 65(8), pp. 1392-1398, Apr. 2012. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.015.

Ahmed, Z., Yusoff, M.S., Mokhtar Kamal, N. & Aziz, H.A., Application of Natural Starch Coagulant Followed by Membrane Filtration for the Elimination of Color From Stabilized Leachate, in Advances in Engineering Research, ICoST, 200, pp. 82-90, 2021. DOI: 10.2991/ aer.k.201229.012.

Huang, X., Bo, X., Zhao, Y., Gao, B., Wang, Y., Sun, S., Yue, Q. & Li, Q., Effects of Compound Bioflocculant on Coagulation Performance and Floc Properties for Dye Removal, Bioresour. Technol., 165(C), pp. 116?121, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.02.125.

Al-Hamadani,Y.A.J., Yusoff, M.S., Umar, M., Bashir, M.J.K. & Adlan, M.N., Application Of Psyllium Husk As Coagulant And Coagulant Aid In Semi-Aerobic Landfill Leachate Treatment, J. Hazard. Mater., 190(1-3), pp. 582?587, 2011. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.03.087.

Ahmed, Z., Yusoff, M.S. & Mokhtar Kamal, N.H., Application of Natural Coagulants for Sustainable Treatment of Semi-Aerobic Landfill Leachate, in AIP Conference Proceedings, 020024, 2020. DOI: 10.1063/5.0017406.

Liang, C.Z., Sun, S.P., Li, F.Y., Ong, Y.K. & Chung, T.S., Treatment of Highly Concentrated Wastewater Containing Multiple Synthetic Dyes by a Combined Process of Coagulation/Flocculation and Nanofiltration, J. Memb. Sci., 469, pp. 306-315, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2014.06.057.

Vijayaraghavan, G., Sivakumar, T. & Kumar, A., Application of Plant Based Coagulants for Waste Water Treatment, Int. J. Adv. Eng. Res. Stud., 1(1), pp. 88-92, 2011.

Gao, J., Oloibiri, V., Chys, M., Audenaert, W., Decostere, B., He, Y., Van Langenhove, H., Demeestere, K. & Van Hulle, S.W.H., The Present Status of Landfill Leachate Treatment and Its Development Trend from a Technological Point of View, Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 14(1) pp. 93?122, 2015. DOI: 10.1007/s11157-014-9349-z.

Unda-Calvo, J., Martez-Santos, M. & Ruiz-Romera, E., Chemical and Physiological Metal Bioaccessibility Assessment in Surface Bottom Sediments from the Deba River Urban Catchment, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 138, pp. 260-270, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.12.029.

M. F. Elkady, S. Farag, S. Zaki, G. Abu-Elreesh & D. Abd-El-Haleem, Bacillus Mojavensis Strain 32A, A Bioflocculant-producing Bacterium Isolated from an Egyptian Salt Production Pond, Bioresour. Technol., 102(17), pp. 8143?8151, 2011. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.05.090.

De Paula, H.M., de Oliveira Ilha, M.S., Sarmento A.P. & Andrade, L.S., Dosage Optimization of Moringa Oleifera Seed and Traditional Chemical Coagulants Solutions for Concrete Plant Wastewater Treatment, J. Clean. Prod., 174, pp. 123-132, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.311.

Abidin, Z.Z., Mohd Shamsudin, N.S., Madehi, N. & Sobri, S., Optimisation of a Method to Extract the Active Coagulant Agent from Jatropha Curcas Seeds for Use in Turbidity Removal, Ind. Crops Prod., 41(1), pp. 319-323, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop. 2012.05.003.

gadong1.jpg (43165), Accessed from https://www.majalahsains.com/ wp-content/uploads/2017/08/gadong1.jpg (Oct. 17, 2020).

Kumoro, A.C., Widiyanti, M., Ratnawati,R. & Retnowati, D.S., Nutritional and Functional Properties Changes during Facultative Submerged Fermentation of Gadung (Dioscorea Hispida Dennst) Tuber Flour using Lactobacillus Plantarum, Heliyon, 6(3), e03631, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03631.

L. Hapsari, Diversity and Utilization of Dioscorea Spp. Tuber as Alternative Food Source in Nganjuk Regency, East Java, Agrivita, J. Agric. Sci., 37(2), pp. 97-107, Jun. 2015. DOI: 10.17503/Agrivita-2015-37-2-p097-107.

Dutta, B. & Barnali Dutta, C., Food and Medicinal Values of Certain Species of Dioscorea with Special Reference to Assam, J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 3(4), pp. 15-18, 2015.

Maneenoon, K., Sirirugsa, P. & Sridith, K., Ethnobotany of Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae): A Major Food Plant of the Sakai Tribe at Banthad Range, Peninsular Thailand, Ethnobot. Res. Appl., 6, pp. 385-394, Dec. 2008.

APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 2012.

Mohd. Noor, M.A., Dos Mohd., A.M., Islam, M.N. & Mehat, N.A., Physico-chemical Properties of Oil Palm Trunk Starch, Willey Online Libr., 51(8-9), pp. 293-301, Sep. 1999. DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1521-379.

Ashri, A., Yusof, M.S.M., Jamil, M.S., Abdullah, A., Yusoff, S.F.M., Arip, M.N.M. & Lazim, A.M., Physicochemical Characterization of Starch Extracted from Malaysian Wild Yam (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.), Emirates J. Food Agric., 26(8), pp. 652-658, 2014. DOI: 10.9755/ ejfa.v26i8.17098.

Uriyapongson, J. & Rayas-Duarte, P., Comparison of Yield and Properties of Amaranth Starches Using Wet and Dry-Wet Milling Processes, Carbohydrates, 71(6), pp. 571-577, 1994.

Singh, N., Sandhu, K.S. & Kaur, M., Characterization of Starches Separated from Indian Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars, J. Food Eng., 63(4), pp. 441-449, 2004. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.09.003.

Madzlan, K., Hasnisa, H., Sabeetha, S. & Dayana, M.N., Extraction of Starch and Enzymatic Production of High Amylose Starch from Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas) var. Telong, J. Trop. Agric. Fd. Sc, 40(2), pp. 203-210, 2012.

Asrafuzzaman, M., Fakhruddin, A.N.M. & Hossain, M.A., Reduction of Turbidity of Water Using Locally Available Natural Coagulants, ISRN Microbiol., 2011, pp. 1-6, 2011. DOI: 10.5402/2011/632189.

Uwidia, C.E.I.E., Characterization of Textile Wastewater Discharges in Nigeria and Its Pollution Implications, J. Ind. Pollut. Control, 20(1), pp. 137-144, 2004. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-802326-6.00002-2.

Helmy, Q., Notodarmojo, S., Aruan, I. A. & Apriliawati, R., Removal of Color and Chemical Oxygen Demand from Textile Wastewater Using Advanced Oxydation Process (AOPs), IPTEK J. Proc. Ser., 3(6), 2017. DOI: 10.12962/j23546026.y2017i6.3292.

Lopez-Diago, L.F., Castillo, K., Vidal, M.V., Pasqualino, J., Meza-Castellar, P. and Lambis-Miranda, H.A., Evaluation of the Production of Starch from Bitter Cassava (Manihot utilissima) using Different Methodologies, Chem. Eng. Trans., 65, pp. 613-618, 2018. DOI: 10.3303/CET1865103.

Veeramalini, J., Sravanakumar, K. & Joshua Amarnath, D., Removal of Reactive Yellow Dye from Aqueous Solutions by Using Natural Coagulant (Moringa oleifera), Int. J. Sci. Environ. Technol., 1(2), pp. 56-62, 2012.

Asaithambi, P., Govindarajan, R., Yesuf, M.B. & Alemayehu, E., Removal of Color, COD and Determination of Power Consumption from Landfill Leachate Wastewater Using an Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes, Sep. Purif. Technol., 233(April 2019), 115935, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2019.115935.

Yusoff, M.S., Aziz, H.A., Alazaiza, M.Y.D.M. & Rui, L.M.L., Potential Use of Oil Palm Trunk Starch as Coagulant and Coagulant Aid in Semi-aerobic Landfill Leachate Treatment, Water Qual. Res. J., 54(3), pp. 203-219, 2019. DOI: 10.2166/wqrj.2019.041.

Santos, T.R.T., Silva, M.F., Nishi, L., Vieira, A.M.S., Fagundes-Klen, M.R., Andrade, M.B., Vieira, M.F. & Bergamasco,R., Development of a Magnetic Coagulant based on Moringa oleifera Seed Extract for Water Treatment, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 23(8), pp. 7692-7700, Apr. 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-6029-7.

Bruno, P., Campo, R., Giustra, M.G., De Marchis, M. & Di Bella, G., Bench Scale Continuous Coagulation-flocculation of Saline Industrial Wastewater Contaminated by Hydrocarbons, J. Water Process Eng., 34, (January), 101156, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2020.101156.

Saritha, V., Srinivas, N. & Srikanth Vuppala, N.V., Analysis and Optimization of Coagulation and Flocculation Process, Appl. Water Sci., 7(1), pp. 451-460, 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s13201-014-0262-y.

Aziz, H.A., Rahim, N.A., Ramli, S.F., Alazaiza, M.Y.D., Omar, F.M. & Hung, Y.T., Potential Use of Dimocarpus longan Seeds as a Flocculant in Landfill Leachate Treatment, Water (Switzerland), 10(11), pp. 1-15, Nov. 2018. DOI: 10.3390/w10111672.




How to Cite

Yusoff, M. S., Juni, F., Ahmed, Z., Azaiza, M., & Aziz, H. A. (2021). Dioscorea hispida Starch as a Novel Natural Coagulant in Textile Wastewater Treatment. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 53(2), 210207. https://doi.org/10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2021.53.2.7




Most read articles by the same author(s)