The Effect of Thermal Ageing on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber-based Compounds Used for Rubber Bearings


  • Manuel Alberto Guzmn University of Antioquia
  • Diego Hernn Giraldo-Vsquez University of Antioquia
  • Ricardo Moreno University of Antioquia



compression, design, mechanical properties, rubber bearing, thermal ageing, viscoelastic behavior


Molecular changes due to high temperatures, sunlight, and oxygen, deteriorate the physical properties of rubber compounds, yielding additional crosslinks and molecular chain breakdown. Since oxidative degradation is the most important factor that determines the durability of rubber components, this study evaluated the mechanical behavior of rubber compounds exposed to accelerated thermal ageing. Therefore, three carbon black-reinforced natural rubber-based compounds typically used for rubber bearings were exposed to thermal oxidation and their mechanical properties under typical loading states were assessed through standardized tests. Significant differences were found due to thermal ageing in the compressive modulus, compression set, and creep compliance in compression, exhibiting a stiffening effect caused by additional crosslinks. However, no significant differences were observed in hardness, which is a superficial measurement and a typical test in the rubber industry to characterize rubber compounds. Therefore, the assessment of ageing in rubber bearings should not be limited to a hardness test, which is required in design standards but also addresses compressive, cyclic, and transient tests. The results obtained in this study can be considered in the design process of rubber bearings by limiting the allowable compressive stress and creep deflection due to ageing effects.


Download data is not yet available.


Chou, H. & Huang, J., Effects of Cyclic Compression and Thermal Aging on Dynamic Properties of Neoprene Rubber Bearings, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 107, pp. 1635-1641, Oct. 2007.

Itoh, Y., Gu, H., Satoh, K. & Yamamoto, Y., Long-term Deterioration of High Damping Rubber Bridge Bearing, Doboku Gakkai Ronbunshuu A. 62, pp. 595-607, 2006.

Itoh, Y., Gu, H., Satoh, K. & Kutsuna, Y., Experimental Investigation on Ageing Behaviors of Rubbers Used for Bridge Bearings, Structural Engineering/Earthquake Engineering, 23, pp. 17-31, 2006.

Stevenson, A. & Campion, R., Durability, in Engineering with Rubber ? How to Design Rubber Components 3rd ed., Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co., 2012.

Pimolsiriphol, V., Saeoui, P. & Sirisinha, C., Relationship Among Thermal Ageing Degradation, Dynamic Properties, Cure Systems, and Antioxidants in Natural Rubber Vulcanizates, Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 46, pp. 113-121, Feb. 2007.

Yura, J., Kumar, A., Yakut, A., Topkaya, C., Becker, E. & Collingwood, J., NCHRP Report 449 ? Elastomeric Bridge Bearings: Recommended Test Methods, Washington D.C., 2001.

Gu, H. & Itoh, Y., Ageing Behaviour of Natural Rubber and High Damping Rubber Materials Used in Bridge Rubber Bearings, Advances in Structural Engineering, 13, pp. 1105-1113, Nov. 2010.

Itoh, Y., Asce, M. & Gu, H., Prediction of Aging Characteristics in Natural Rubber Bearings Used in Bridges, Journal of Bridge Engineering, 14, pp. 122-128, Mar. 2009.

Gu, H., Itoh, Y. & Satoh, K., Effect of Rubber Bearing Ageing On Seismic Response of Base-isolated Steel Bridges, Fourth International Conference on Advances in Steel Structures, 2, pp. 1627-1632, Sep. 2007.

Abedi Koupai, S., Bakhshi, A. & Valadoust Tabrizi, V., Experimental Investigation on Effects of Elastomer Components on Dynamic and Mechanical Properties in Seismic Isolator Compounds, Constrution and Building Materials, 135, pp. 267-278, Mar. 2017.

Wu, J., Dong, J., Wang, Y. & Gond, B., Thermal Oxidation Ageing Effects on Silicone Rubber Sealing Performance, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 135, pp. 43-53, Nov. 2016.

Kmling, A., Jaunich, M. & Wolff, D., Revealing Effects of Chain Scission During Ageing Of EPDM Rubber Using Relaxation and Recovery Experiment, Polymer Testing, 56, pp. 261-268, Dec. 2016.

Zhang, Z., Sun, J., Lai, Y., Wang, Y., Liu, X., Shi, S. & Chen, X., Effects of Thermal Aging on Uniaxial Ratcheting Behavior of Vulcanised Natural Rubber, Polymer Testing, 70, pp. 102-110, Sep. 2018.

Azura, A., Muhr, A. & Thomas, A., Diffusion and Reactions of Oxygen During Ageing for Conventionally Cured Natural Rubber Vulcanisate, Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 45, pp. 893-896, Feb. 2007.

Kumar, A., Commereuc, S. & Verney, V., Ageing of Elastomers: A Molecular Approach based on Rheological Characterization, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 85, pp. 751-757, Aug. 2004.

Grasland, F., Chazeau, L., Chenal, J. & Schach, R., About Thermo-oxidative Ageing at Moderate Temperature of Conventionally Vulcanized Natural Rubber, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 161, pp. 74-84, Mar. 2019.

Choi, S. & Kim, J., Influence of Reinforcing Systems on Thermal Aging Behaviors of NR Composites, Elastomers and Composites, 46, pp. 237-244, 2011.

Choi, S., Jose, J., Lyu, M., Huh, Y., Cho, B. & Nah, C., Influence of Filler and Cure Systems on Thermal Aging Resistance of Natural Rubber Vulcanizates under Strained Condition, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 118, pp. 2658-2667, Sep. 2010.

Yahya, Y., Azura, A. & Ahmad, Z., Effect of Curing Systems on Thermal Degradation Behaviour of Natural Rubber (SMR CV 60), Journal of Physical Science, 22, pp. 1-14, 2011.

Choi, S., Kim, J., Lee, S. & Joo, Y., Influence of the Cure Systems on Long Time Thermal Aging Behaviors of NR Composites, Macromolecular Research, 16, pp. 561-566, Aug. 2008.

South, J., Case, S. & Reifsnider, K., Effects of Thermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 76, pp. 785-802, Sep. 2003.

Sommer, J. & Yeoh, O., Tests and Specifications, in Engineering With Rubber ? How to Design Rubber Components, 3rd ed., Hanser Publications, 2012.

Guzm, M., Giraldo, D. & Moreno, R., Rheometric, Transient, and Cyclic Tests to Assess the Viscoelastic Behavior of Natural Rubber-Based Compounds Used for Rubber Bearings, Materials Today Communications, 22, 100815, Mar. 2020.

Othman, A., Property Profile of a Laminated Rubber Bearing, Polymer Testing, 20, pp. 159-166, Oct. 2001.

ASTM, D575-91: Standard Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Compression, pp. 1-4, 2012.

ASTM, D412-06: Standard Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers-Tension, pp. 1-14, 2013.

ASTM, D573-04: Standard Test Method for Rubber-deterioration in an Air Oven, pp. 1-6, 2015.

ASTM, D1149-07: Standard Test Method for Rubber Deterioration-Cracking in an Ozone Controlled Environment, pp. 1-11, 2007.

ASTM, D2240-05: Standard Test Method for Rubber Property-durometer Hardness, pp. 1-13, 2010.

ASTM, D395-14: Standard Test Methods for Rubber Property-Compression Set, pp. 1-6, 2014.

Mullins, L., Softening of Rubber by Deformation, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 42, pp. 339-362, 1969.

Chandra, C., Bipinbal, P. & Sunil, K., Viscoelastic Behaviour of Silica Filled Natural Rubber Composites-Correlation of Shear with Elongational Testing, Polymer Testing, 60, pp. 187-197, Jul. 2017.

Violaine, T., Quang Tam, N. & Christophe, F., Experimental Study on High Damping Rubber under Combined Action of Compression and Shear, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, 137, 11007, Jan. 2015.

Lee, Y., Cho, M., Do Nam, J. & Lee, Y., Effect of ZnO Particle Sizes on Thermal Aging Behavior of Natural Rubber Vulcanizates, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 148, pp. 50-55, Feb. 2018.

Pinarbasi, S. & Akyuz, Y., Investigation of Compressive Stiffness of Elastomeric Bearings, 6th International Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering, pp. 6-8, 2004.

Koh, C. & Lim, H., Analytical Solution for Compression Stiffness of Bonded Rectangular Layers, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 38, pp. 445-455, Jan. 2001.

Sridharan, K. & Sivaramakrishnan, R., Compression and Deformation of Cylindrical Rubber Blocks, Journal Metrology Society of India, 29, pp. 107-114, 2014.

Gent, A., Discenzo, F. & Suh, J., Compression of Rubber Disks between Frictional Surfaces, Rubber Chemestry and Technology, 82, pp. 1-17, 2009.

Quaglini, V., Dubini, P. & Vazzana, G., Experimental Assessment of High Damping Rubber under Combined Compression and Shear, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology., 138, pp. 1-9, Jan. 2016.

Amin, A., Wiraguna, S., Bhuiyan, A. & Okui, Y., Hyperelasticity Model for Finite Element Analysis of Natural and High Damping Rubbers in Compression and Shear, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 132, pp. 54-64, 2006.

Sajjayanukul, T., Saeoui, P. & Sirisinha, C., Experimental Analysis of Viscoelastic Properties in Carbon Black-filled Natural Rubber Compounds, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 97, pp. 2197-2203, Jun. 2005.

Brinson, H. & Brinson, C., Polymer Engineering Science and Viscoelasticity - An Introduction, 2nd ed., Springer, 2015.

Puspitasari, S. & Cifriadi, A., Design of Elastomeric Bridge Bearing Pad Compound Formula Based on Hydrogenated Natural Rubber, Journal of Engineering and Technological Science, 51(5), pp. 649-661, 2019.

Li, Y., Liu, X., Hu, X. & Luo, W., Changes in Tensile and Tearing Fracture Properties of Carbon-black Filled Rubber Vulcanizates by Thermal Aging, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 26, pp. 1331-1335, Sep. 2015.




How to Cite

Guzmán, M. A., Giraldo-Vásquez, D. H., & Moreno, R. (2021). The Effect of Thermal Ageing on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber-based Compounds Used for Rubber Bearings. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 53(3), 210310.