Removal of Reactive Yellow 4R Azo Dye from Synthetic Aqueous Solution by Alkali Hydrothermally Activated Fly Ash


  • Fadjari Lucia Nugroho Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Pasundan, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Deni Rusmaya Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Pasundan, Jalan Dr. Setiabudhi 193, Bandung 40153, Indonesia
  • Angela Deviliana Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Pasundan, Jalan Dr. Setiabudhi 193, Bandung 40153, Indonesia



adsorption isotherm, dye removal, fly ash, kinetics, textile wastewater


Dye-containing wastewater affects the aesthetic quality, transparency and gas solubility of natural water bodies, hence colored wastewater must be treated before being discharged. Physical removal of dyes from wastewater can be achieved using activated carbon. However, this technique is expensive, so there is a need to find less expensive alternatives. A waste product generated from coal-fired plants known as fly ash is a sorbent that can be used to remove pollutants from solution. This study investigated the effectiveness of using alkali (NaOH) hydrothermally activated fly ash to remove Reactive Yellow 4R azo dye from synthetic aqueous solution. Na2O in alkali hydrothermally activated fly ash increases thirteen-fold. SEM observations revealed that the raw fly ash consisted of smooth round shaped particles, whereas the activated fly ash was composed of granular crystalline particles. Batch adsorption experiments of the dye at 25C showed that increasing the activated fly ash quantity (0.5 to 3.5 g) increased the removal efficiency from 30% to 39.3%. The Freundlich isotherm adsorption model best described the adsorption of Reactive Yellow 4R dye by alkali hydrothermally activated fly ash with KF = 1.49 x 10-21 mg/g. The dye adsorption kinetics by activated fly ash followed the Lagergren pseudo second order model, with calculated qe = 2.65 mg/g; k2 = 0.06 g/mg; and calculated h = 0.42 mg/g min?1. Dye removal occurred primarily through surface adsorption and very little through intra-particle diffusion.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmaruzzaman, M., A Review on the Utilization of Fly Ash, Prog. in Energy and Combustion Sci. 36, pp. 327-363, 2010.

Koshy, N. & Singh, D.N., Fly Ash Zeolites for Water Treatment Applications, J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 4, pp. 1460-1472, 2016.

Dzige, N., Aydiner, C., Demirbas, E., Kobya, M. & Kara, S., Adsorption of Reactive Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Fly Ash: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies, J. Hazard. Mater. 150, pp. 737-746, 2008.

Mor, S., Chavi, M.K., Sushil, K.K. & Ravindra, K., Assessment of Hydrothermally Modified Fly Ash for the Treatment of Methylene Blue Dye in the Textile Industry Wastewater, Environ. Dev. Sustain, 20 (2), pp. 625-639, 2018.

Dwivedi, M.K., Tripathi, L.P. & Dwivedi, A.K., Sorption Studies on Removal of Malachite Green from Wastewater by Coal fly ash, IJSR, 3, pp. 57- 60, 2014.

Khan, T.A., Ali, I., Singh, V. & Sharma S., Utilization of Fly Ash as Low-Cost Adsorbent for the Removal of Methylene Blue, Malachite Green and Rhodamine B Dyes from Textile Wastewater, JEPS, 3, pp. 11-22, 2009.

Ganesh, R., Boardman, G.D., & Michelsen, D., Fate of Azo in Sludges, Wat. Res., 28 (6), pp. 1367-1376, 1994.

Musyoka, N.M., Petrik, L.F., Balfour, G., Misheer, N., Gitari, W. & Mabovu, B., Removal of Toxic Elements from Brine Using Zeolite Na-P1 Made from a South African Coal Fly Ash, in International Mine Water Conference Proceedings, pp. 680-687, 2009.

Freundlich, H., Adsorption in Solution, Phys. Chemie, 57, pp. 384-410, 1906.

Langmuir, I., Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surfaces of Glass, Mica and Platinum., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 40, pp. 1361-1403, 1918.

ASTM Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete (C618-05), in Annual Book of ASTM standards. 04.02, 2005.

Murayama, N., Yamamoto, H. & Shibata, J., Mechanism of Zeolite Synthesis from Coal Fly Ash by Alkali Hydrothermal Reaction, Int. J. Miner. Process, 64, pp. 1-17, 2002.

Kara, S., Aydiner, C., Demirhas, E., Kobya, M. & Dizge, N., Modeling the Effects of Adsorbent Dose and Particle Size on the Adsorption of Reactive Textile Dyes by Fly Ash, Desalination, 212, pp. 282-293, 2007.

Haghseresht, F & Lu, G.Q., Adsorption Characteristics of Phenolic Compounds onto Coal-Reject-Derived Adsorbents, Energy & Fuels, 12(6), pp. 1100-1107, 1998.

Yagub, M.T., Sen, T.K., Afroze, S. & Ang, H.M., Dye and Its Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption: A Review, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 209, pp. 172-184, 2014.

Qui, H., LV, L., Pan, B-C., Zhang, Q, Zhang, W. & Zhang, Q., Critical Review in Adsorption Kinetic Models, J. Zheijang Univ. Sci. A, 10(5), pp. 716-724, 2009.

Huang, W-J., Li, D., Liu, Z-Q., Tao, Q., Zhu, Y., Yang, J. & Zhang, Y-M, Kinetics, Isotherm, Thermodynamic, and Adsorption Mechanism Studies of La(OH)3-Modified Exfoliated Vermiculites as Highly Efficient Phosphate Adsorbents, Chem. Eng. J., 236, pp. 191-201, 2014.

Kumar, K.V., Ramamurthi, V. & Sivanesan, S., Modeling the Mechanism Involved During the Sorption of Methylene Blue onto Fly Ash, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 284, pp. 14-21, 2005.

Weber, W. & Morris, J., Kinetics of Adsorption on Carbon from Solution, J. Sanit. Eng. Div., 89(2), pp. 31-60, 1963.




How to Cite

Nugroho, F. L., Rusmaya, D., & Deviliana, A. (2022). Removal of Reactive Yellow 4R Azo Dye from Synthetic Aqueous Solution by Alkali Hydrothermally Activated Fly Ash . Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 54(3), 220312.