Tectonics and Geological Factors Controlling Cleat Development in the Barito Basin, Indonesia


  • Benyamin Sapiie Geology Study Program, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • Arif Rifiyanto Geology Study Program, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung




Barito Basin, coalbed methane, cleats, geology, tectonics.


Cleats are natural fractures within coal seams. This paper presents the results of regional cleat mapping and characterization in relation to coalbed methane (CBM) exploration and development in the Barito Basin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia involving two major coal layers, namely the Late Eocene Tanjung Formation and Early to Middle Miocene Warukin Formation with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 50 m. The coal is classified as lignite to subbituminous with calorific values ranging from 6000-8000 Cal/gr with ash content 0.68-17.42%. We applied two methods of cleat measurement, i.e. scanline and window sampling using a 100 x 100 cm grid. More than 20,000 cleats were measured from 65 scanline and 37 window sampling locations. The results revealed that face and butt cleats are predominantly oriented in the WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW directions, respectively. The results showed that cleat density increases related to structural position such as fold hinge and fault zone. The formation of the cleats may be influenced by several geological processes, where the cleats, which form during coalification, are superimposed by later processes such as fluid pressure and tectonic stresses and are seemingly also affected by the composition of the coal.


Download data is not yet available.


Laubach, S.E., Marrett, R.A., Olson, J.E. & Scott, A.R., Characteristics and Origins of Coal Cleat: A Review, International Journal of Coal Geology, 35(1), pp. 175-207, 1998.

Laubach, S.E. & Tremain, C.M., Regional Coal Fracture Patterns and Coalbed Methane Development, Proceedings of the 32nd U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Balkema, Rotterdam, Roegiers, J-C. (ed(s).), pp. 851-859, 1991.

Kulander, B.R. & Dean, S.L., Coal-Cleat Domains and Domain Boundaries in The Allegheny Plateau of West Virginia, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 77(8), pp. 1374-1388, 1993.

Harpalani, S. & Schraufnagel, R.A., Shrinkage of Coal Matrix with Release of Gas and Its Impacts on Permeability of Coal, Fuel, 69(5), pp. 551-556, 1990.

Moss, S.J. & Wilson, M.E.J., Biogeographic Implications of The Tertiary Palaeogeographic Evolution of Sulawesi and Borneo, Biogeography and Geological Evolution of SE Asia, Hall, R. & Holloway, J.D. (ed(s).), Leiden: Backhuys Publishers, pp. 133-163, 1998.

Hall, R. & Nichols, G, Cenozoic Sedimentation and Tectonics in Borneo Climatic Influences on Orogenesis, Sediment Flux to Basins: Causes, Controls and Consequences, Jones, S.J. & Frostick, L. (ed(s).), Geological Society, London, Special Publication, 191, pp. 5-22, 2002.

Satyana, A.H., Nugroho, D. & Surantoko, I., Tectonic Controls on The Hydrocarbon Habitats of The Barito, Kutei, and Tarakan Basins, Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia: major dissimilarities in adjoining basins, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 17(1), pp. 99-122, 1999.

Siregar, M.S. & Sunaryo, R., Depositional Environment and Hydrocarbon Prospects, Tanjung Formation, Barito Basin, Kalimantan, Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 9th Annual Convention, pp. 379-400, 1980.

Satyana, A.H. & Silitonga, P.D., Tectonic Reversal in East Barito Basin, South Kalimantan: Consideration of The Types of Inversion Structures and Petroleum System Significance, Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 23rd Annual Convention, pp. 57-74, 1994.

Satyana, A.H., Paleogene Unconformities in The Barito Basin, Southeast Kalimantan: A Concept for The Solution of The "Barito Dilemma" and A Key to The Search for Paleogene Structures, Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 24th Annual Convention, pp. 263-275, 1995.

Witts, D., Hall, R., Nichols, G. & Morley, R.J., A New Depositional and Provenance Model for The Tanjung Formation, Barito Basin, SE Kalimantan, Indonesia, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 56, pp. 77-104, 2012.

Heryanto, R. & Sanyoto, P., Geological Map of the Amuntai Quadrangle, Kalimantan, Scale 1:250,000, Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung, 1994.

Heryanto, R., Supriatna, S., Rustandi, E. & Baharuddin, Geological Map of The Sampanahan Quadrangle, Kalimantan, Scale 1:250,000, Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung, 1994.

Sikumbang, N. & Heryanto, R., Geological Map of The Banjarmasin Sheet, Kalimantan, Scale 1:250,000, Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung, 1994.

Rustandi, E., Nila, E.S., Sanyoto, P. & Margono, U., Geological Map of The Kotabaru Sheet, Kalimantan, Scale 1:250,000, Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung, 1995.

Seton, M., M1/4ller, R.D., Zahirovic, S., Gaina, C., Torsvik, T., Shephard, G., Talsma, A., Gurnis, M., Turner, M., Maus, S. & Chandler, M., Global Continental and Ocean Basin Reconstructions Since 200 Ma, Earth-Science Reviews, 113(3-4), pp. 212-270, 2012.

Tingay, M., Morley, C., King, R., Hillis, R., Coblentz, D. & Hall, R., Present-Day Stress Field of Southeast Asia, Frontiers of Stress Research, Heidbach, O., Tingay, M. & Wenzel, F. (ed(s).), Tectonophysics, 482, pp. 92-104, 2010.

Pubellier, M. & Morley, C.K., The Basins of Sundaland (SE Asia): Evolution and Boundary Conditions, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 58, pp. 555-578, 2014.

Daly, M.C., Cooper, M.A., Wilson, I., Smith, D.G. & Hooper, B.G.D., Cenozoic Plate Tectonics and Basin Evolution in Indonesia, Marine and Petroleum Geology 8, 1991.

Hall, R., van Hattum, M.W.A. & Spakman, W., Impact of India-Asia Collision on SE Asia: The record in Borneo, Tectonophysics, 451, pp. 366-389, 2008.

Heidbach, O., Tingay, M., Barth, A., Reinecker, J., KurfeY, D. & M1/4ller, B., The World Stress Map Database Release 2008, 2008. doi:10.1594/GFZ.WSM.Rel2008.

Zahirovic, S., Seton, M. & M1/4ller, R.D., The Cretaceous and Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia, Solid Earth, 5(1), pp. 227-273, 2014.

Morley, C.K., Back, S., van Rensbergen, P., Crevello, P. & Lambiase, J.J., Characteristics of Repeated, Detached, Miocene-Pliocene Tectonic Inversion Events, in A Large Delta Province on An Active Margin, Brunei Darussalam, Borneo, Journal of Structural Geology, 25(7), pp. 1147-1169, 2003.

Kusuma, I. & Darin, T., The Hydrocarbon Potential of The Lower Tanjung Formation, Barito Basin, S.E. Kalimantan, Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 18th Annual Convention, pp. 107-138, 1989.

Witts, D., Davies, L. & Morley, R., Uplift of The Meratus Complex: Sedimentology, Biostratigraphy, Provenance and Structure, Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 38th Annual Convention, IPA14-G-082, 2014.

Witts, D., Hall, R., Morley, R.J. & BouDagher-Fadel, M.K., Stratigraphy and Sediment Provenance, Barito Basin, Southeast Kalimantan, Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 35th Annual Convention, IPA11-G-054, 2011.

Sapiie, B., Riyanto, A. & Suryanugraha, A. M., Tectonic controlled of cleats development as implication of coal bed methane (CBM) Prospect in the Barito Basin, South Borneo, Indonesia, 76th EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2014, Workshops.




How to Cite

Sapiie, B., & Rifiyanto, A. (2017). Tectonics and Geological Factors Controlling Cleat Development in the Barito Basin, Indonesia. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 49(3), 322-339. https://doi.org/10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2017.49.3.3