Chemical Characterization of Flour Fractions from Five Yam (Dioscorea alata) Cultivars in Indonesia


  • Lula Nadia Department of Food Science and Technology, Open University of Indonesia
  • M. Aman Wirakartakusumah Southeast Asia Food Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, Bogor Agricultural University
  • Nuri Andarwulan Southeast Asia Food Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, Bogor Agricultural University
  • Eko Hari Purnomo Southeast Asia Food Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, Bogor Agricultural University
  • Takahiro Noda NARO Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center (NARO/HARC), Shinsei, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0081,
  • Koji Ishiguro NARO Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center (NARO/HARC), Shinsei, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0081, Japan



The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of particle size on the chemical properties of yam flour in five cultivars, yellow/YY, orange/OY, light purple/LPY, purple/PY, and dark purple/DPY. With a mesh sieve, three flour fractions were separated according to particle size: small (128.6-139.7 m), medium (228.7-257.9 m), and large (475.4-596.3 m). The content of moisture (6.81-11.26 %db) and lipids (4.48-9.85 %db) decreased with the increase of particle size, while proteins (4.48-9.85 %db) and carbohydrates (78.12-83.76 %db) were not influenced by particle size. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and chlorogenic acid were used as standard to investigate the total phenolic compounds in the yam flour, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to investigate the anthocyanin and carotene contents. It was found that there was no size influence on the content of phenolics (0.27-2.82%db), anthocyanin (2.25-15.27 mg/100g db) in LPY, PY, DPY or carotene (23.75-132.12 mg/100g db) in YY, OY. The differences in chemical composition were due to differences in particle size and heat treatment, but may also have
been caused by the different composition of the milling process.


Download data is not yet available.


Codex Standard 152-1985, Codex Standard for Wheat Flour, http//, downloaded on June 3rd 2011 Hoover, R., Composition, Molecular Structure, and Physicochemical Properties of Tuber and Root Starches, Carbohydrate Polymers, 45 (3), pp. 253-267, 2001.

Lasztity, R., Hidvegi, M. & Bata, A., Saponins in Food, Food Reviews International, 14(4), pp. 371-390, 1998.

Wanasundera, J.P.D. & Ravindran, G., Nutrition Assessment of Yam (Dioscorea alata) tubers, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 46, pp. 33-39, 1994.

Maga, J.A., Simple Phenol and Phenolic Compounds, Food Science and Nutrition, 10(4), 1978.

Ozo, O.N., Caygill, J.C. & Coursey, D.G., Phenolics of Five Yam (Dioscorea) Species, Phytochemistry, 23, pp. 329-331, 1984.

Muzac-Tucker, I., Asemota, H.N. & Ahmad, M.A., Biochemical Composition and Storage of Jamaica Yam (Dioscorea sp.), Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 62, pp. 219-224, 1993.

Farombi, E.O., Britton, G. & Emerole, G.O., Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Partial Characterization of Extracts from Browned Yam Flour Diet, Food Research International, 33, pp. 493-499, 2000.

Jordheim, M., Isolation, Identification and Properties of Pyranoanthocyanins and Anthocyanin Forms, [Ph.D. Thesis],Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, Norway, 2007.

Rasper, V. & Coursey, D.G., Anthocyanins of Dioscorea alata L.,Experiential, 23, pp. 611-612, 1967.

Champagne, A., Stephane, B., Annick, M., Dominique, R., Laurent, L. & Vincent, L., Carotenoid Profiling of Tropical Root Crop Chemo Types from Vanuatu, South Passific, Journal of Composition and Analysis, 23, pp. 763-771, 2010.

Mozaffarieh, M., Stefan, S. & Andreas, W., The Role of the Carotenoids, lutein and Zeaxanthin, in Protecting Against Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Review based on Controversial Evidence, Nutrition Journal, 2(20), pp. 1-8, 2003.

Ige, M.T. & Akintunde, F.O., Studies on the Local Techniques of Yam Flour Production, Journal Food Technology, 16, pp. 303-311, 1981.

Imanningsih, N., Dioscorea alata, The Effect of Processing Factors on the Retention of Bioactive Components of Dioscorea alata Tuber,[Dissertation], Ilmu Pangan IPB, Bogor, Indonesia, 2013. (Text in Indonesian)

Sullivan, D.M. & Carpenter, D.E., (ed.), AOAC Official methods of Analysis for Nutritional Labeling, Wilson Boulevard Arlington, Virginia 22201-3301, USA, 1993.

Ishiguro, K., Yahara, S. & Yoshimoto, M., Changes in Polyphenolic Content and Radical-Scavenging Activity of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) during Storage at Optimal and Low Temperatures, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(26), p. 10773-10778, 2007.

Giusti, M. & Ronald, E.W., Characterization and Measurement of Anthocyanins by UV-visible Spectroscopy, Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, F1.2.1-F1.2.13, 2001.

Ishiguro, K., Yoshinaga, M., Kai, Y., Maoka, T. & Yoshimoto, M.,Composition, Content and Antioxidative Activity of the Carotenoids in Yellow Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), Breeding Science, 60, pp. 1-6, 2010.

Marco, C. & Cristina, R.M., Functional and Rheological Properties of Protein Enriched Gluten Free Composite Flour, Journal of Food Engineering, 88, pp. 94-103, 2007.

Peroni, F.H.G., Rocha, T.S. & Franco, C.M.L., Some Structural and Physicochemical Characteristics of Tuber and Root Starches, Food Sci Tech Int., 12(6), pp. 505-513, 2006.

Puncha-arnon, S., Worayudh, P., Chureerat, P., Vilai, R. & Dudsadee, U., Effects of Relative Granule Size and Gelatinization Temperature on Paste and Gel Properties of Starch Blends, Food Research International, 41, pp. 552-561, 2008.

Stevenson, D.G., Jane, J.L. & Inglett, G.E., Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Starches from Sieve Fractions of Oat Flour compared with Whole and Pin-Milled Flour, Cereal Chemistry, 84(6), pp. 533-539, 2007.

Blazek, J., Role of Amylase in Structure Function Relationship in Starches from Australian Wheat Varieties, [Ph.D. Thesis], Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, the University of Sydney, Australia, 2008.

Morrison, W.R., Milligan, T.P. & Azudin, M.N., A Relationship between the Amylose and Lipid Contents of Starches from Diploid Cereals,Journal of Cereal Science, 2, pp. 257-271, 1984.

Tsai, S.S. & Tai, F.J., Studies on the Mucilage from Tuber of Yam (Dioscorea alata Linn.) I. Isolation and Purification of the Mucilage, Journal Chinese Agricultural Chemical Society, 22, pp.88-94, 1984.

Singh, N., Jaspreet, S., Kaur, L., Sodhi, N.S. & Balmeet, S.G., Review Morphological, Thermal and Rheological Properties of Starches from Different Botanical Sources, Food Chemistry, 81, pp. 219-231, 2003.

Bhandari, M.R. & Kawabata, J., Organic Acid, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Wild Yam (Dioscorea Spp.) Tubers of Nepal, Food Chemistry, 88, pp. 163-168, 2004.

Champagne, A., Ghislaine, H., Laurent, L. & Vincent, L., Diversity of Anthocyanins and other Phenolic Compounds among Tropical Root Crops from Vunuatu, South Pacific, Journal of Composition and Analysis, 24, pp. 315-325, 2011.

Lahacoompol, Effects of Drying on Anthocyanins in Blueberries, [Ph.D. Thesis], Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, The University of New South Wales, UK, 2007.

Rasper, V. & Coursey, D.G., Properties of Starches of some West African Yams, J. Sci. Food Agric., 18, pp. 240-244, 1967.

Bechoff, A., Investigating Carotenoid Loss after Drying and StorageFleshed Sweet Potato, [Ph.D. Thesis], School of Science, University of Greenwich, Uganda, 2010.




How to Cite

Nadia, L., Wirakartakusumah, M. A., Andarwulan, N., Purnomo, E. H., Noda, T., & Ishiguro, K. (2015). Chemical Characterization of Flour Fractions from Five Yam (Dioscorea alata) Cultivars in Indonesia. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 47(1), 92-103.