Physical Model of Vertical Water Movement Inside a Soil-Column Apparatus for Infiltration Study with A Two-Way Orientation Approach


  • Reza Adhi Fajar Post Graduate Program in Mining Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132,
  • Gunawan Handayani Earth Physics and Complex-system Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132,
  • Sudarto Notosiswoyo Earth Resources Exploration Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132,
  • Lilik Eko Widodo Earth Resources Exploration Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132,
  • Tri Chandra Pamungkas Microelectronics Centre, Inter-University Centre, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132



adiabatic, infiltration, non-isothermal, soil-column, water-ponding


To improve the theory of Richard's equation, studying infiltration under free-draining conditions at the ground surface is necessary. Verification is required to clarify the physical model of water movement. The aim of this study was to describe multistage measurements of both the wetting and the drying front scheme of one-dimensional infiltration at laboratory scale. A soil-column infiltration apparatus was built consisting of a double acrylic wall, a sensor set and a light bulb. Acrylic was chosen as the material for the wall to minimize possible heat conduction on the wall side, which was wrapped in double insulation to achieve adiabatic condition. The following three main sensors were used and controlled by a microcontroller: water-content, pressure and temperature sensors. Meanwhile, the light bulb at the top of the apparatus was set to non-isothermal condition. The instrument was successfully built to describe vertical water movement. Slight modifications were carried out to ensure more precise observation. This resulted in the initiating of new shape interpretation based on the water-ponding measurement to refine the simplified pattern that was introduced by the conventional Green-Ampt theory.


Download data is not yet available.


Banimahd, S.A. & Zand, S., Simulation of Evaporation, Coupled Liquid Water, Water Vapor and Heat Transport through the Soil Medium, Agricultural Water Management, 130, pp. 168-177, 2013.

Green, W.H. & Ampt, G.A., Studies on Soil Physics I. The Flow of Air and Water through Soils, Journal of Agricultural Research, 4, pp. 1-24, 1911.

Gowdish, L. & Munoz-Carpena, R., An Improved Green-ampt Infiltration and Redistribution Method for Uneven Multistorm Series, Vadose Zone Journal, 8(2), pp. 470-479, 2009.

Guymon, G-L., Unsaturated Zone Hydrology, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, United States: PTR Prentice Hall, 1994.

Hayek, M., Water Pulse Migration through Semi-infinite Vertical Unsaturated Porous Column with Special Relative-Permeability Functions: Exact Solutions, Journal of Hydrology, 517, pp. 668-676, 2014.

Grifoll, J., Gasto, J.M. & Cohen, Y., Non-Isothermal Soil Water Transport and Evaporation, Advances in Water Resources, 28(11), pp. 1254-1266, 2005.

Herrada, M.A., Gutierrez-Martin, A. & Montanero, J.M., Modeling Infiltration Rates in a Saturated/Unsaturated Soil Under the Free Draining Condition, Journal of Hydrology, 515, pp. 10-15, 2014.

Richards, L.A., Capillary Conduction of Liquids through Porous Mediums, Physics, 1(5), pp. 318-333, 1931.

Ma, Y., Feng, S., Su, D., Gao, G. & Huo, Z., Modeling Water Infiltration in a Large Layered Soil Column with a Modified Green-ampt Model and HYDRUS-1D, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 71, pp. 40-47, 2010.

Mao, L., Li, Y., Hao, W., Zhou, X., Xu, C. & Lei, T., A New Method to Estimate Soil Water Infiltration Based on a Modified Green-ampt Model, Soil and Tillage Research, 161, pp. 31-37, 2016.

Mein, R.G. & Larson, C.L., Modeling Infiltration during Steady Rain, Water Resources Research, 9, pp. 384-394, 1973.

Miracapillo, C. & Morel-Seytoux, H., A Numerical Experiment to Determine the Soil Water Contents in the Unsaturated Zone and the Water Table Response under Transient Ponding Conditions, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 25, pp. 150-157, Jan. 2015.

Mohammadzadeh-Habili, J. & Heidarpour, M., Application of the Green-Ampt Model for Infiltration into Layered Soils, Journal of Hydrology, 527, pp. 824-832, 2015.

Rawls, W.J., Brakensiek, D.L., Simanton, J.R. & Kohl, K.D., Of a Crust Factor for a Green-ampt Model, Transactions of the ASAE, 33, Jul. 1990.

Siemens, G. & Bathurst, R., Numerical Parametric Investigation of Infiltration in One-Dimensional Sand-Geotextile Columns, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 20, pp. 460-474, 2010.

Suttisong, S., Rattanadecho, P. & Montienthong, P., Comparison of Stefan Model with Single-Phase Model of Water Infiltration Process in Unsaturated Porous Media (Theory and Experiment), Journal of Hydrology, 497, pp. 145-151, 2013.

Voller, V.R., On a Fractional Derivative Form of the Green-ampt Infiltration Model, Advances in Water Resources, 34(2), pp. 257-262, 2011.

Zhang, W., Zhang, Z. & Wang, K., Experimental Study and Simulations of Infiltration in Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers, Water Science and Engineering, 2(3), pp. 96-109, 2009.

Hendrayanto, Kosugi, K. & Mizu, T., Field Determination of Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Forest Soils, Journal of Forestry, 3, pp. 11-17, 1998.

Ibrahim, A., Mukhlisin, M. & Jaafar, O., Rainfall Infiltration through Unsaturated Layered Soil Column, Sains Malaysiana, 43(10), pp. 1477-1484, 2014.

Kapetas, L., Dror, I. & Berkowitz, B., Evidence of Preferential Path Formation and Path Memory Effect During Successive Infiltration and Drainage Cycles in Uniform Sand Columns, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 165, pp. 1-10, 2014.

Lee, M., Lee, L., Kassim, A. & Gofar, N., Performances of Two Instrumented Laboratory Models for the Study of Rainfall Infiltration into Unsaturated Soils, Engineering Geology, 117, 2010.

Swartzendruber, D., Derivation of a Two-term Infiltration Equation from the Green-Ampt Model, Journal of Hydrology, 236(3), pp. 247-251, 2000.

Mellouli, H., Wesemael, B., Poesen, J. & Hartmann, R., Evaporation Losses from Bare Soils as Influenced by Cultivation Techniques in Semi-Arid Regions, Agricultural Water Management, 42, pp. 355-369, 2000.

Menziani, M., Pugnaghi, S., Pilan, L., Santangelo, R. & Vincenzi, S., Field Experiments to Study Evaporation from a Saturated Bare Soil, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere, 24(7), pp. 813-818, 1999.

Price, J.S., Edwards, T.W.D., Yi, Y. & Whittington, P.N., Physical and Isotopic Characterization of Evaporation from Sphagnum Moss, Journal of Hydrology, 369(1), pp. 175-182, 2009.

Raziyeh, A., Mehdi, H. & Mohammad, B., Simulating Unsteady Soil Evaporation Under Variable Water Content Based on Campbell's Two-Parameter Retention Model, 1(4), pp. 87-97, 2012.

Saito, H., A imAinek, J. & Mohanty, B.P., Numerical Analysis of Coupled Water, Vapor, and Heat Transport in the Vadose Zone, Vadose Zone Journal, 5(2), pp. 784-800, 2006.

Zhang, J., Chen, Q. & You, C., Numerical Simulation of Mass and Heat Transfer Between Biochar and Sandy Soil, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 91, pp. 119-126, 2015.

Huang, R.Q. & Wu, L.Z., Analytical Solutions to 1-D Horizontal and Vertical Water Infiltration in Saturated/Unsaturated Soils Considering Time-varying Rainfall, Computers and Geotechnics, 39, pp. 66-72, 2012.

Nowamooz, H., Nikoosokhan, S., Lin, J. & Chazallon, C., Finite Difference Modeling of Heat Distribution in Multilayer Soils with Time-spatial Hydrothermal Properties, Renewable Energy, 76, pp. 7-15, 2015.

Sadeghi, M., Tuller, M., Gohardoust, M.R. & Jones, S.B., Column-scale Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates in Coarse-textured Homogeneous and Layered Soils Derived under Steady-State Evaporation from a Water Table, Journal of Hydrology, 519, pp. 1238-1248, 2014.

Mander, G. & Arora, M., Design of Capacitive Sensor for Monitoring Moisture Content of Soil and Analysis of Analog Voltage with Variability in Moisture, in 2014 Recent Advances in Engineering and Computational Sciences, RAECS 2014, pp. 1-5, 2014.

Saleh, M., Elhajj, I., Asmar, D., Bashour, I. & Kidess, S., Experimental Evaluation of Low-cost Resistive Soil Moisture Sensors, presented at the International Multidisciplinary Conference on Engineering Technology (IMCET), pp. 179-184, 2016.

Jr, C.H.R. & Kinney, L.L., Fundamentals of Logic Design, 6th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning, 2009.

CD4051BMT Datasheet Texas Instruments CD4051B CMOS Single 8-Channel Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexer with Logic-Level Conversion Engineering360, Available at: https://datasheets. TexasInstruments/C07DEB36-6430-4F56-8F7E-025FB61EEED2. (26-May 2018)

Hakam, A., Laboratory Liquefaction Test of Sand Based on Grain Size and Relative Density, Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 48(3), pp. 334-344, 2016.




How to Cite

Fajar, R. A., Handayani, G., Notosiswoyo, S., Widodo, L. E., & Pamungkas, T. C. (2019). Physical Model of Vertical Water Movement Inside a Soil-Column Apparatus for Infiltration Study with A Two-Way Orientation Approach. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 51(5), 615-631.