Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences 2021-12-17T09:33:33+07:00 Prof.Dr. Tjandra Setiadi Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><img class="imgdesc" src="" alt="" /></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences</em> welcomes full research articles in the area of Engineering Sciences from the following subject areas: Aerospace Engineering, Biotechnology, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Engineering Physics, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Information Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Material Science and Engineering, Manufacturing Processes, Microelectronics, Mining Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, and other application of physical, biological, chemical and mathematical sciences in engineering. Authors are invited to submit articles that have not been published previously and are not under consideration elsewhere.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Starting from Vol. 35, No. 1, 2003, full articles published are available online at, and indexed by <a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0">Scopus (2020:Q3)</a>, <a href=",p24780957,3.html">Index Copernicus</a>, <a href=";hl=id">Google Scholar</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, <a title="Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences" href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB by University Library of Regensburg</a>, EBSCO Open Science Directory, Ei Compendex, Chemical Abstract Service (CAS), <a href="">Zurich Open Repository and Archive Journal Database</a>, <a href=";Full=*journal%20of%20engineering%20and%20technological%20sciences">Emerging Sources Citation Index</a> and Indonesian Publication Index.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal has been also accredited for five years based on The Decree of Directorate General of Research and Development Strengthening, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia No. 30/E/KPT/2018, for Volume 50 No.1, 2018 until Volume 54 No. 6, 2022.</p> <p>ISSN: <a href="">2337-5779</a>, E-ISSN: <a href="">2338-5502</a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Published by the Institute for Research and Community Services, Institut Teknologi Bandung, in collaboration with Indonesian Engineering Association (<em>Persatuan Insinyur Indonesia-PII</em>).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Publication History</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Formerly known as:</strong></p> <ul> <li>ITB Journal of Engineering Science (2007 - 2012)</li> <li>Proceedings ITB on Engineering Science (2003 - 2007)</li> <li>Proceedings ITB (1961 - 2002)</li> </ul> <p>Back issues can be read online at:</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Scimago Journal Ranking</strong></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><a title="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" href=";tip=sid&amp;exact=no"><img src=";title=true" alt="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" border="0" /></a></p> <p> </p> New Method of Materials Flow Calculation for Double-String SLCI Type Cement Plant (Part 2: Suspension Preheater and Calciners) 2021-02-26T09:53:53+07:00 Prihadi Setyo Darmanto Izzan Hakim Muzakki I Made Astina Firman Bagja Juangsa Alfi Amalia Arief Syahlan <p>In many industries, energy auditing is important as the basis for controlling processes and designing additional equipment or modifying an existing plant. However, it requires detailed data of the materials flow, which often cannot be determined easily by direct measurement due to high-temperature limitations. This paper presents the second part of an integrated study to perform energy auditing in a separate line and in-line calciners (SLC-I) type cement plant. The second part of this study, as presented in this paper, focused on the materials flow calculation for eight separate cyclones and two calciners. The least square method was employed for solving the obtained overdetermined system equations. Using the operation data from Part 1 of the study, calculation of the detailed materials flow in each cyclone was executed. The results showed that the separation efficiency of cyclones 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A and 1B, 2B, 3B, 4B was 93.86%, 89.80%, 84.41%, 81.98% and 93.96%, 88.70%, 88.53%, 80.72% respectively and the estimated calcination percentage of kiln feed coming out of the ILC and the SLC was 85.3% and 56.3%, respectively. These values are impossible to be measured directly in the cyclones and calciners during plant operation.</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Development of Single-Phase Microbial Cementation Method and to Investigate its Efficacy on Bearing Capacity, UCS, and Permeability of Sandy Soils 2021-02-02T02:13:20+07:00 Prakash Bhaskarrao Kulkarni Pravin Dinkar Nemade Ranjit Chavan Manoj Pandurang Wagh <p>Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a method based on collaborative knowledge of microbiology, chemistry and geotechnical engineering. The objective of this study was to investigate the increase of the bearing capacity and the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) as well as the reduction of the permeability of sandy soil using MICP. Experiments were carried out using <em>Bacillus Pasteurii</em>, on three different types of sand. The admixture of bacterial culture and cementation (BCC) solution all-in-one with sand by single-phase injection was applied to induce cementation. Three samples of the selected sand were treated with varied concentrations of BCC solution, ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 L/kg, with a curing period of 3, 7 and 14 days. The test results indicated an enhancement of 55% in UCS for sand treated with a BCC content of 0.05 to 0.2 L/Kg and a reduction of 40% in permeability for untreated sand with an effective diameter of 0.5 mm treated with 0.2 L/kg of BCC solution after 14 days of curing. The results of a plate load test (PLT) on MICP treated sand showed an increase in the ultimate bearing capacity (q<sub>u</sub>) by about 2.95 to 5.8 times and a 1.7 to 3.31-fold reduction in settlement corresponding to the same load applied on untreated footing. Further investigation of the size and shape of the bearing plate on bearing capacity and settlement was carried out through a plate load test. The higher and more favorable results shown by a rectangular plate compared to a circular plate indicate that the first is preferable.</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Analysis of Faecal Sludge Treatment Alternatives to Enhance the Treatment Performance of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) Denpasar Sewerage Development Project (DSDP) Suwung Denpasar City 2021-05-11T14:36:02+07:00 Gede Adi Wiguna Sudiartha Prayatni Soewondo <p>Most of the wastewater generated from domestic activities in Denpasar city is treated in an off-site treatment plant located in WWTP DSDP Suwung. This includes faecal sludge that originates from on-site treatment plants. The existing treatment facilities can only treat wastewater that has a maximum biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration of around 225 mg/l while the disposed faecal sludge’s BOD concentration reaches 3,394 mg/l. Therefore, an additional faecal sludge treatment plant needs to be established in order to separate the solid phase from the liquid phase. According to the treatment performance calculation, some alternative treatments can achieve BOD<sub>5</sub> and TSS removal of up to 97% and 98% respectively. The selection of the alternative treatment was decided from weighting results of several aspects, such as economic, land use, technological and environmental aspects. The weighting method that was used in this research was Simple Additive Weighting (SAW). The advantage of SAW is its ability to do the assessment highly precisely because it is based on predetermined criteria and preference weights. Based on the weighting result, the treatment technology selected was a Solid Separation Chamber as primary treatment, combined with an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor as a secondary treatment. A Belt Filter-Press was applied to reshape the sludge into a recyclable cake. The required cost is approximately 16 billion rupiahs.</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Simulation of Rainwater Harvesting Potential to Satisfy Domestic Water Demand Based on Observed Precipitation Data in Jakarta 2021-05-07T10:53:07+07:00 Rista Hernandi Virgianto Qurrata Ayun Kartika <p class="Abstract">Jakarta as the most populous urban center of Indonesia has a major problem related to clean water availability for the domestic needs of its residents, who mostly depend on the extraction of groundwater. The rooftop rainwater harvesting (RRWH) system is a solution to reduce the use of groundwater to satisfy domestic water needs. This study used demographic data and precipitation observation data from the rain gauge network in Jakarta to simulate the water supply from rainwater harvesting from 2010 to 2019 in each municipality. Three simulations were carried out to calculate the percentage of domestic water demand (DS) satisfied by RRWH based on the proportion of residential areas installed with RRWH (R<sub>A</sub>). The results showed that an R<sub>A</sub> value of 0.2 produced the lowest DS (approximately 11% to 18.7%), while an R<sub>A</sub> value of 0.3 produced a higher DS (approximately 16.3% to 28%). An R<sub>A</sub> value of 0.4 resulted in a DS of around 21.8% to 37.4%. Overall, the RRWH system could provide up to 30% of domestic water demand on average, with South Jakarta having the highest fulfillment of water needs with an average of 28% based on the three simulations, while Central Jakarta had the lowest with 16.4%.</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Noise Attenuation of a Duct-resonator System Using Coupled Helmholtz Resonator - Thin Flexible Structures 2021-07-08T10:10:41+07:00 Iwan Prasetiyo Gradi Desendra Khoerul Anwar Mohammad Kemal Agusta <p>Several studies have been devoted to increasing the attenuation performance of the Helmholtz resonator (HR). One way is by periodic coupling of HRs in a ducting system. In this study, we propose a different approach, where a membrane (or a thin flexible structure in general) is added to the air cavity of a periodic HR array in order to further enhance the attenuation by utilizing the resonance effect of the membrane. It is expected that three attenuation mechanisms will exist in the system that can enhance the overall attenuation, i.e. the resonance mechanism of the HR, the Bragg reflection of the periodic system, and the resonance mechanism of the membrane or thin flexible structure. This study found that the proposed system yields two adjacent attenuation peaks, related to the HR and the membrane respectively. Moreover, extension of the attenuation bandwidth was also observed as a result of the periodic arrangement of HRs. With the same HR parameters, the peak attenuation by the membrane is tunable by changing its material properties. However, such a system does not always produce a wider attenuation bandwidth; the resonance bandwidths of both mechanisms must overlap.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Comparison of Static Model, Adaptation Study, and CFD Simulation in Evaluating Thermal Comfort Based on Köppen Climate Classification System in Churches in Indonesia 2021-06-09T13:48:58+07:00 Cornelia Hildegardis Anak Agung Ayu Oka Saraswati I Dewa Gede Agung Diasana Putra Ni Ketut Agusinta Dewi <p>This research examined thermal comfort in church buildings in Indonesia by making a comparison between three different Indonesian climatic regions using three different research models. A static model, an adaptation study model and a CFD simulation were used to find the similarities and differences between the results generated from determining thermal comfort in church buildings in the three regions. The comparison revealed that church buildings had different PMV scores at each measuring point that were inversely proportional to the subjects’ response on thermal comfort inside the buildings, i.e. points adjoining with openings affect a low PMV score and a high perceived thermal sensation, and vice versa. The CFD simulation showed that changing the conditions of the openings affects air velocity and flow into the building, which influences the subjects’ thermal comfort response inside the churches.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Pitting Corrosion in AA7075 Friction Stir Welds on Minor Additions of Silver 2021-10-12T13:35:22+07:00 Kodamasimham Sri Ram Vikas Venkata Ramana Vuppala Sesha Narasimha Koona Bhavani Challa Kishore Reddy Vadapalli Srinivas <p>AA7075 is extensively used in aerospace, defense, automotive applications because of its high strength to weight ratio. Issues related to fusion welding and corrosion resistance are key problems associated with these alloys. Friction stir welding is an alternative welding technique that overcomes problems associated with fusion welding. In the present investigation, preliminary studies were done on pitting corrosion behavior of AA7075 friction stir welds by adding silver along the weld joint line. Silver paste was applied along the longitudinal direction of AA7075-T6 rolled plates of 6-mm thickness and cured at 130 °C for 30 seconds. Weld joints were prepared at two different tools rotational speeds, i.e., 750 rpm and 1000 rpm, while keeping other parameters fixed. Welded joints were cut as per the required sizes to study the hardness, microstructure, and pitting corrosion resistance in various regions. It was observed that the hardness was not much affected, but pitting corrosion resistance substantially improved by trace addition of silver. In the stir zone and the thermo-mechanically affected zone, onion ring type marks were observed. Grain refinement in the stirred zone (SZ) was higher at 750 rpm compared to 1000 rpm. The increased hardness in the welds was due to grain refinement. All the observed results were correlated with microstructural features as evidenced by optical microscopy.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences The Effect of Acids on Alkaloid Yield in Pressurized Water Extraction of Narcissus Pseudonarcissus 2021-08-13T14:12:03+07:00 Orchidea Rachmaniah Jaap van Spronsen Robert Verpoorte Geert Jan Witkamp <p>Pressurized water (PW) extraction of galanthamine from <em>Narcissus pseudonarcissus</em> bulbs was performed. The obtained yield was compared with the yield from conventional acidified water extraction and methanolic Soxhlet extraction. Both PW and conventional acidified water extraction were followed by a subsequent purification step for the alkaloids. The PW extraction (70 °C, 150 bar, 45 min) yielded as much galanthamine as methanolic-Soxhlet extraction (ca. 3.50 mg/g). Meanwhile, acid-base extraction with 1% of HBr (v/v) at 65 °C for 3 h gave a lower yield (ca. 2.65 mg/g). A higher PW temperature did not significantly increase the galanthamine yield. Pressure increase is not necessary since more water-soluble compounds such as proteins and polysaccharides are co-extracted, resulting in high viscosity of the water extract solution, which hampers the filtration process. Hence, the acidity of the solution is highly important both in the case of PW extraction and acidified water extraction. Besides galanthamine, the total alkaloid profile following <em>Narcissus</em> alkaloids was also obtained. Lycoramine, <em>O</em>-methyloduline, norgalanthamine, epi-norgalanthamine, narwedine, oduline, haemanthamine, <em>O</em>-methyllycorenine, and a haemanthamine derivate were identified. Although a high yield was obtained from PW extraction, the further purification needs to be improved to obtain an economically feasible industrial extraction process.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Anaerobic Treatment for Palm Oil Mill Effluent Using Covered In-the Ground Anaerobic Reactor (CIGAR) 2021-06-22T15:11:29+07:00 Agus Haryanto Shintawati Shintawati Udin Hasanudin <p>Wastewater from crude palm oil mills contains high organic matter, which potentially produces biogas through anaerobic digestion processes. The design and operation of an anaerobic bioreactor require a good understanding of the reaction kinetic in the bioreactor. This study aimed to evaluate the biogas production from POME and to determine the kinetic parameters of microbial growth and the substrate utilization rates in a CIGAR. An experiment was conducted using a 5-m<sup>3</sup> bioreactor with a working volume of 4.4 m<sup>3</sup>. Wastewater from the Bekri palm oil mill was stored in a 5-m<sup>3</sup> tank. After stabilization, the wastewater was loaded into the reactor at a rate of 100 to 250 L/d, corresponding to a COD loading rate of 1.373-3.097 kg·m<sup>-3</sup>.d<sup>-1</sup>, and an HRT of 18-44 days. Monod, Contois, Moser, and Shuler kinetic models were evaluated. The results showed that the Shuler model performed best for microbial activities, while the first order reaction model performed best for the substrate utilization kinetic. The maximum specific growth rate (μ<sub>max</sub>) for the Shuler model was 0.052 d<sup>-1</sup> and the saturation constant (<em>K</em><sub>so</sub>) was 0.119. The maximum substrate utilization rate constant (<em>k</em><sub>s</sub>) was 2.183 d<sup>-1</sup> and biomass yield (<em>Y</em><sub>x/s</sub>) 0.024 kg/kg. The maximum average efficiency of anaerobic degradation (34.4%) occurred at a feeding rate of 100 L/d with methane yield of 0.120 Nm<sup>3</sup>/kg of removed COD. This value is relatively low compared to the maximum potential of 0.350 Nm<sup>3</sup>/kg COD<sub>r</sub>.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Acquaintance Management Algorithm Based on the Multi-Class Risk-Cost Analysis for Collaborative Intrusion Detection Network 2021-03-31T11:13:06+07:00 Yudha Purwanto Kuspriyanto Kuspriyanto Hendrawan Hendrawan Budi Rahardjo <p>The collaborative intrusion detection network (CIDN) framework provides collaboration capability among intrusion detection systems (IDS). Collaboration selection is done by an acquaintance management algorithm. A recent study developed an effective acquaintance management algorithm by the use of binary risk analysis and greedy-selection-sort based methods. However, most algorithms do not pay attention to the possibility of wrong responses in multi-botnet attacks. The greedy-based acquaintance management algorithm also leads to a poor acquaintance selection processing time when there is a high number of IDS candidates. The growing number of advanced distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks make acquaintance management potentially end up with an unreliable CIDN acquaintance list, resulting in low decision accuracy. This paper proposes an acquaintance management algorithm based on multi-class risk-cost analysis and merge-sort selection methods. The algorithm implements merge risk-ordered selection to reduce computation complexity. The simulation result showed the reliability of CIDN in reducing the acquaintance selection processing time decreased and increasing the decision accuracy.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Experimental Studies on Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Aluminum 7075 Composite Material 2021-07-26T22:07:17+07:00 Mahendra Kumar Chidananda Swamy Raghavendra Bommanahalli Venkatagiriyappa <p>In the present work multiwalled carbon nanotubes were added as reinforcement to aluminum 7075 matrix at 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.25% by weight proportion through stir casting technique. The mechanical properties of the produced composite were studied. The composite has considerably good tensile and wear resistance properties and hence finds its best suited application in aircraft frame and wings structures. Microstructure analysis through SEM showed a uniform distribution of the reinforcement material in the matrix. XRD graphs were taken at selected points during microscopic studies to determine the chemical composition of the matrix alloy, the reinforcement and the composite. The experimental results showed that 1.25% reinforcement in the composite material exhibited a tensile strength of 560 N/mm<sup>2 </sup>and a compression strength of 649.6 N/mm<sup>2 </sup>as the highest among the compositions. Thus, the reinforcement addition at 1.25% improved the tensile and compression strength of the composite material.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Increasing the Yield of Powder and Bioactive Materials during Extraction and Spray Drying of Dragon Fruit Skin Extracts 2021-08-13T14:29:13+07:00 Dian Shofinita Yazid Bindar Tjokorde Walmiki Samadhi Najwa Shufia Choliq Arwinda Aprillia Jaelawijaya <p>One potential utilization of dragon fruit skin is to produce bioactive materials as natural antioxidants and colorants for the food industry by extraction and spray drying. This study investigated the quality (total phenolic compounds/TPC, betacyanin and betaxanthin contents, and antioxidant activity) of the extracts and spray-dried products, and the quantity (powder yield) obtained by the use of different types and amounts of spray drying agents. Two drying agents were introduced during spray drying, i.e. maltodextrin and whey protein isolate (WPI). The result showed that a lower extraction solvent to solid ratio may result in a lower yield of TPC, betacyanin and betaxanthin contents, and also in antioxidant activity of the dragon fruit skin extract. In addition, maltodextrin and WPI were found to be able to significantly increase the yield from spray drying. The highest yield (72.7 ± 8.4%) was obtained with the use of 40% maltodextrin as drying agent, while the control yielded 9.5 ± 1.8%. Furthermore, it was found that the spray-dried product could recover more than 90% of the TPC and betacyanin in the extracts, which indicates that spray drying may be suitable for heat-sensitive materials.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Experimental Work for Bar Straightness Effect Evaluation of Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar 2021-05-10T08:47:37+07:00 Afdhal Afdhal Leonardo Gunawan Tatacipta Dirgantara <p>Bar straightness is one of several factors that can affect the quality of the strain wave signal in a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB). Recently, it was found that the bar components of the SHPB at the Lightweight Structures Laboratory displayed a deviation in straightness because of manufacturing limitations. An evaluation was needed to determine whether the strain wave signals produced from this SHPB are acceptable or not. A numerical model was developed to investigate this effect. In this paper, experimental work was performed to evaluate the quality of the signal in the SHPB and to validate the numerical model. Good agreement between the experimental results and the numerical results was obtained for the strain rates and stress-strain relationship for mild steel ST37 and aluminum 6061 specimen materials. The recommended bar straightness tolerance is proposed as 0.36 mm per 100 mm.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences