Feeder Bus Reformation for an Urban Rail Project: The Case of Khon Kaen City, Thailand


  • Wantana Prapaporn Graduate School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Saga University, Japan
  • Takuro Inohae Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Saga University, Japan
  • Patiphan Kaewwichian Civil Engineering Department, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan KhonKaen Campus, Thailand
  • Somsiri Siewwuttanagul The Cluster of Logistics and Rail Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University, Thailand




Urban rail, Multimodal transportation, Accessibility index, Feeder, Demand-responsive connection


The ability to use public transportation should be available throughout the whole service area and the public transportation network should be well connected. This research compared the potential coverage of a feeder bus network in support of urban rail transportation, as well as the impact of future transit network plans on public transportation accessibility in the city of Khoan Kaen, Thailand. The performance of the public transportation system was predicted based on multimodal transport and the completed urban rail public transportation plan, as projected in the year 2036, in order to fill gaps in the existing feeder bus network. The feasibility and characteristics of the route reformation policy concept should provide an effective feeder network for the urban rail system. A comparative study was conducted on stakeholder impact for a three-fold scenario: 1) separate individual lines for bus routes; 2) both forms of feeder bus networks (conventional and reformed); and 3) access to three designated utility areas from the entire feeder bus network. In this scenario, the most effective urban mobility support was provided by public facilities combined with a major roadway directly connecting to the designated positions. The time used on the extended bus route network increased by around 11% on average for the entire trip, while accessibility increased by approximately 67.75%, 47.9%, and 43.68% for the entire multimodal transport network. These analytical results make a significant contribution to future knowledge on urban transformation through urban mass transit projects. The contribution of land acquisition was significant. Also, the demand-responsive connection approach used in this study can be adopted to determine feeder bus reformation options, particularly in emerging economies.


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