Analysis of MaACS2, a stress-inducible ACC Synthase Gene in Musa acuminata AAA Group Cultivar Pisang Ambon

Resnanti Utami Handayani, Fenny M. Dwivany


Ethylene  has  an important function in plant growth and development. Ethylene  production  generally  increases  in  response  to  pathogen  attacks  and other  environmental  stress  conditions.  The  synthesis  of  this phytohormone  is regulated  by  two  enzymes,  ACC  synthase  (ACS)  and  ACC  oxidase  (ACO).  ACC synthase is encoded by a multigene  that  regulates  the  production  of ACC, after  which  this  precursor  is  converted  into  ethylene  by  ACO.  Pisang  Ambon (Musa  sp. AAA group), a banana cultivar originating from Indonesia, has nine ACS genes (MaACS  1-9) and one ACO gene (MaACO).  One  of  the  banana  ACS genes,  MaACS2,  is  stress-inducible.  In  this  research,  we  have  investigated  the expression  profile  of  MaACS2  in  the  roots  and  leaf  tissues  of  infected  tissue culture  plants.  Quantification  of  gene  expression  was analyzed using Real-Time PCR (qPCR) using  Ma18srRNA  and  MaGAPDH  as reference genes.  The results showed  nine-to  ten  fold  higher  MaACS2  expression  levels in  the  infected  roots tissues  compared to  the  uninfected roots  tissues. However,  MaACS2 expression in the leaves was only detected in infected tissue.


banana; environmental stress;ethylene; MaACS2; Real-Time PCR (qPCR)

Full Text:



Kende, H., Ethylene Biosynthesis, Annual Review Plant Physiology & Plant Molecular Biology, 44, pp. 283-307, 1993.

Yamagami, T., Tsuchisaka, A., Yamada, K., Haddon, W.F., Harden, L.A. & Theologis, A., Biochemical Diversity among the 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase Isozymes Encoded by the Arabidopsis Gene Family, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278, pp. 49102-49112, 2003.

Karmawan, L.U., Suhandono, S. & Dwivany, F.M., Isolation of MA-ACS Gene Family and Expression Study of MA-ACS1 Gene in Musa acuminate Cultivar Pisang Ambon Lumut, HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 3, pp. 35-39, 2009.

Huang, F.C., Yi, Y.D.& Huang, P.L., Genomic Organization of a Diverse ACC Synthase Gene Family in Banana and Expression Characteristics of the Gene Member Involved in Ripening of Banana Fruits, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, pp. 3859-3868, 2006.

Hall, M.A.& Smith, A.R., Ethylene and the Responses of Plants to Stress, Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology, 21 (2-3), pp. 71-79,1995.

Bradford, K.J. & Yang, S.F., Stress-Induced Ethylene Production in the Ethylene-Requiring Tomato Mutant Diageotropica, Plant Physiology, 65, pp. 327-330, 1980.

Olson, D.C., Oetiker, J.H. & Yang, S.F., Analysis of LE-ACS3, A 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase Gene Expressed during Flooding in the Roots of Tomato Plants, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270(23), pp. 14046-14061, 1995.

Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Cheng, C. & Guo, X., Molecular Characterization of a Transient Expression Gene Encoding for 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate Synthase in Cotton (Gossypiumhirsutum L.), Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 40(5), pp. 791-800, 2007.

Ecker, J.R. & Davis, R.W., Plant Defense Gene are Regulated by Ethylene, Proceeding of National Academy of Science, 84, pp. 5202-5206, 1987.

Hyodo, H., Yoshioka, S., Imai, Y., Nakane, H. & Nishikawa, F., Ethylene Biosynthesis in Sweet-Potato Root Tissue Induced by Infection with Black Rot Fungus (Ceratocystisfimbriata), Botany Bulletin Academy Sin, 44, pp. 179-186, 2003.

Liu, J., Goh, C., Loh, C., Liu, P. & Pua, E., A Method for Isolation of Total RNA from Fruit Tissues of Banana, Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 16, pp. 1-6, 1998.

Kuroha, T. & Satoh, S. Involvement of Cytokininsin Adventitious and Lateral Root Formation, Plant Root, 1, pp. 27-33, 2007.

Livak, K.J. & Schmittgen, T.D., Analysis of Relative Gene Expression Data using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and the 2-∆∆CT Method, Methods, 25, pp. 402-208, 2001.

Vandesompele, J., Preter, K. D., Pattyn, F., Poppe, B., Van Roy, N., Paepe A.D. & Speleman, F., Accurate Normalization of Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Data by Geometric Averaging of Multiple Internal Control Genes, Genome Biology, 3(7), 2002.

Liu, X., Shiomi, S., Nakatsuka, A., Kubo, Y., Nakamura, R. & Inaba, A., Characterization of Ethylene Biosynthesis Associated with Ripeningin Banana Fruit, Plant Physiology, 121, pp. 1257-1265, 1999.

Hubert, O. & Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, D., Expression Patterns of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes from Bananas During Fruit Ripening and in Relationship with Finger Drop, AoB Plants, 2012, pls041; doi:10.1093/aobpla/pls041, 2012.

Li, N., Parsons, B.L., Liu, D. & Mattoo, A.K., Accumulation of Wound-Inducible ACC Synthase Transcript in Tomato Fruit is Inhibited by Salicylic Acid and Polyamines, Plant Molecular Biology, 18, pp. 477-487, 1992.

Deikman, J., Molecular Mechanisms of Ethylene Regulation of Gene Transcription, Plant Physiology, 100, pp. 561-566, 1997.

Taiz, L. & Zeiger, E., Plant Physiology, 3rd ed., Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2002.

Lorbiecke, R. & Sauter, M., Adventitious Root Growth and Cell-Cycle Induction in Deepwater Rice, Plant Physiology, 119, pp. 21-29, 1999.

Steffens, B., Wang, J.& Sauter, M., Interactions between Ethylene, Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid Regulate Emergence and Growth Rate of Adventitious Roots in Deepwater Rice, Planta, 22, pp. 604-612, 2006.

Visser, E., Cohen, J.D., Barendse, G., Blom, C. & Voesenek, L., An Ethylene-Mediated Increase in Sensitivity to Auxin Induces Adventitious Root Formation in Flooded Rumex Palustris Sm., Plant Physiology, 112, pp. 1687-1692, 1996.

Ivanchenko, M.G., Muday, G.K & Dubrovsky, J.G., Ethylene-auxin Interactions Regulate Lateral Root Initiation and Emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana, The Plant Journal, 55, pp. 335-347, 2008.

Stepanova, A.N., Yun, J., Likhacheva, A.V. & Alonso, J.M., Multilevel Interactions between Ethylene and Auxin in Arabidopsis Roots, Plant Cell, 19, pp. 2169-2185, 2007.

Swarup, R., Perry, P., Hagenbeek, D., Van Der Straeten, D., Beemster, G.T., Sandberg, G., Bhalerao, R., Ljung, K. & Bennett, M.J., Ethylene Upregulates Auxin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Seedlings to Enhance Inhibition of Root Cell Elongation, Plant Cell, 19, pp. 2186-2196, 2007.

Dolan, L., The Role of Ethylene in the Development of Plant Form, Journal of Experimental Botany, 48(207), pp. 201-210, 1997.

Hogan, J.D., Murray, E.E. & Harrison, M.A., Ethylene Production as an Indicator of Stress Conditions in Hydroponically-Grown Strawberries, Scientia Horticulturae, 110, pp. 311-318, 2006.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

View my Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (LPPM), Center for Research and Community Services (CRCS) Building, 6th & 7th Floor, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia, Tel. +62-22-86010080, Fax.: +62-22-86010051; E-mail: