Housing Resilience and the Informal City

Paul Jones

Abstract


Central to managing urban growth in the new millennium is understanding the role and nature of the resilience shown by residents and communities in growing towns and cities, and especially in what can be termed the informal city. Urban resilience is defined as the ability of cities to manage and adapt to change, and includes robustness, mitigation and adjustment at all levels. On the other hand, the informal city is about spaces, places and communities where residents adapt to the circumstances at hand using locally based rules, processes and governance. These actions are generally ‘outside’ the structures and processes that guide order and control in the formally planned city. Using the kampung locality of Tamansari in Bandung, Indonesia, as a case study, an analysis of housing resilience and understanding of the local dynamics of housing adaptation in Tamansari was undertaken by assessing four elements, namely, the collective resilience at the Tamansari level, vertical and horizontal housing adaptations, and changes to functionality and space in alleyways and public areas. Five key findings are identified: (i) there is commonality in what residents are seeking, namely, additional living space, modified access ways, privacy, and access to light and air circulation, (ii) a variety of construction methods and materials are utilized, (iii) the process of transformation is ‘step by step’ and incremental, (iii) notions of physical private/public boundaries are fluid, reflecting their flexibility and ability to be locally negotiated and contested, and (v) housing and wider circulation and activity spaces are defined by their multi-functionality. In this setting, legitimization of the informal city by the State is critical as informal settlements play an important role for residents to express and develop their skills of resiliency which may not be acceptable and or tolerated in other parts of the city.

Keywords. housing, informal city, resilience.

Hal utama dalam pengelolaan pertumbuhan perkotaan di milenium baru ini adalah memahami peran dan ketahanan yang ditunjukkan oleh penduduk dan komunitas di kota-kota, dan terutama pada kota yang dapat disebut sebagai kota informal. Ketahanan perkotaan didefinisikan sebagai kemampuan kota untuk mengelola dan menyesuaikan diri terhadap perubahan, yang mencakup ketahanan, mitigasi dan penyesuaian di semua tingkat. Di sisi lain, kota informal adalah tentang ruang, tempat dan komunitas tempat penduduk beradaptasi pada keadaan yang ada dengan menggunakan peraturan, proses, dan tata kelola setempat. Tindakan ini pada umumnya terjadi 'di luar' struktur dan proses yang memandu keteraturan dan pengendalian di kota yang direncanakan secara formal. Dengan menggunakan kampung Tamansari di Bandung, Indonesia, sebagai studi kasus, analisis ketahanan perumahan dan pemahaman dinamika adaptasi perumahan di Tamansari dilakukan dengan menilai empat elemen, yaitu ketahanan kolektif di tingkat Tamansari, adaptasi perumahan vertikal dan horisontal, serta perubahan fungsi dan ruang di lorong-lorong dan tempat umum. Lima temuan utama telah diidentifikasi: (i) ada kesamaan dalam apa yang dicari penduduk, yaitu ruang hidup tambahan, perubahan jalan akses, privasi, dan akses terhadap sirkulasi cahaya dan udara, (ii) menggunakan berbagai metode dan bahan konstruksi, (iii) proses transformasi terjadi secara bertahap, sedikit demi sedikit, (iii) pengertian batas fisik pribadi/publik tidak pasti, mencerminkan fleksibilitas dan kemampuan mereka untuk dinegosiasikan dan diperebutkan secara lokal, serta (v) perumahan dan sirkulasi serta ruang aktivitas yang lebih luas yang didefinisikan oleh multifungsinya. Pada keadaan ini, legitimasi kota informal oleh negara sangat penting karena permukiman informal memainkan peran penting bagi warga untuk mengekspresikan dan mengembangkan keterampilan mereka mengenai ketahanan yang mungkin tidak dapat diterima dan atau ditolerir di bagian kota yang lain.

Kata kunci. Perumahan, kota informal, ketahanan.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Echanove, M. (2013) Beyond the Informal: Conceptualizing Mumbai’s Urban Development. MMG Working Paper 13. Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Gottingen.

Firman, T. (2009) The Continuity and Change in Mega-Urbanization in Indonesia: A Survey of Jakarta–Bandung Region (JBR) Development, Habitat International, No. 33, pp 327–339.

Gunawan, T. (2005) The City of Bandung and Review of Bandung Spatial Planning Strategies in 2005. Green Impact Indonesia.

Hernandez, F., P. Kellett, and L. Allen (Eds) (2010) Rethinking the Informal City: Critical. Perspectives from Latin America. Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Jones, P. (2014) Informal Urbanism as a Product of Socio-Cultural Expression: Insights from the Island Pacific. Working Paper Series, UN-Habitat and Cairo University Responsive Urbanism in Informal Areas Conference. Cairo. Egypt.

Jones, P. (2016a) Unpacking Informal Urbanism: Urban Planning and Design Education in Practice. Penerbit ITB. Bandung. Indonesia.

Jones, P. (2016b) The Emergence of Pacific Urban Villages: Urbanization Trends in the Pacific Islands. Asian Development Bank. Manila. Philippines. 2016.

Jones, P., and N. Suhartini (2014) Reframing Approaches to Conceptualising Urban Governance in Melanesia: Insights from Jayapura and Port Moresby. Jurnal Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota (Journal of Regional and City Planning) 25(2), 96-114. Available at: http://journals.itb.ac.id/ index.php/jpwk/article/view/1281. Date accessed: 11 June, 2017.

Kellett, P. (2011) Contemporary Vernaculars: Informal Housing Processes and Vernacular Theory. Journal of the International Society for the Study of Vernacular Settlements 2(1), 2-12.

Lewis, D., and J. Mioch (2005) Urban Vulnerability and Good Governance. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 13(2), 50-55.

Revell, K. (2010) Working with Informality: Increasing Resilience in Cities of the Global South. Proceedings of the 48th ISOCARP Congress. Nairobi, Kenya. 1-13.

Roy, A. (2009) Why India Cannot Plan its Cities: Informality, Insurgence and the Idiom of Urbanization. Planning Theory 8(1), 76-87.

Scheer, B. (2010) The Evolution of Urban Form - Typology for Planners and Architects. American Planning Association. Chicago.

Sudmeier-Rieux, K. (2014) Resilience - An Emerging Paradigm of Danger or of Hope? Disaster Prevention and Management 23(1), 67 – 80.

Susanto, I., and B. Rahardyan (2016) Analisis Penerimaan Retribusi Sampah oleh Masyarakat dalam Upaya Peningkatan Pelayanan Pengelolaan Persampahan di Kota Bandung Bagian Timur. Jurnal Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota (Journal of Regional and City Planning) 27(3), 219-235. Available at: http://journals.itb.ac.id/index. php/jpwk/article/view/2296 Date accessed: 11 June, 2017.

United Nations (2014a) World Urbanization Prospects - The 2014 Revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York.

United Nations (2014b) The Millennium Development Goals Report 2014. New York.

UN-Habitat (2016) Urbanization and Development: Emerging Futures. World Cities Report. Nairobi, Africa. 2016. Available online: https://unhabitat.org/ wp-content/uploads/2014/03/WCR-%20Full-Report-2016.pdf (accessed 11 June 2017).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5614%2Fjrcp.2017.28.2.4

Copyright © 2016 Journal of Regional and City Planning

Creative Commons License
This work licensed under CC-BY-NC, a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Visitor Counter