Spatial Autocorrelation Analyses of the Commuting Preferences by Bus in the Sydney Metropolitan Region

Putu Alit Suthanaya


Abstract. Decreasing public transport use and increasing car dependence have been experienced in many cities in the world. The environmental impact caused by this trend is alarming. In order to achieve sustainable city, one of the targets is to increase the use of public transport and reduce VKT (Vehicle Kilometer Traveled). It is therefore important to study the commuting behavior of residents. Using Journey-to-Work (JTW) Census data for Sydney region (Australia), this paper focused on analysis of commuting preferences by bus. Two techniques were applied to study commuting behavior by bus, i.e. preference functions and Moran’s I spatial statistic. Preference function was used to measure resident’s commuting behavior by bus whilst Moran’s I spatial statistic was applied to study the spatial association or interaction amongst zones and to test their statistical significance. The results showed that the commuting behavior of the workers was not stable spatially. This indicates that the use of one global parameter to estimate future travel is not appropriate. The change in the commuting preferences by bus toward distance maximization has led to the increase of travel distance and VKT. Spatial statistic showed that the interaction was positive for journey-to-work by bus.

Abstrak. Penurunan penggunaan angkutan umum dan peningkatan ketergantungan pada pemakaian kendaraan pribadi telah dialami oleh banyak kota di dunia. Akibat negatifnya terhadap lingkungan sangat mengkhawatirkan. Untuk mencapai kota yang berkelanjutan, salah satu targetnya adalah dengan meningkatkan penggunaan angkutan umum dan mengurangi kendaraan-kilometer. Untuk itu sangat penting untuk mengkaji perilaku komuter. Dengan menggunakan Sensus Perjalanan ke Tempat Kerja di Kota Sydney (Australia), paper ini difokuskan untuk menganalisis preferensi komuter dalam melakukan perjalanan dengan bis. Dua metode diaplikasikan yaitu fungsi keinginan dan statistik spasial Moran I. Fungsi keinginan dipergunakan untuk mengukur perilaku komuter yang menggunakan bis, sedangkan statistik spasial Moran I dipergunakan untuk mengkaji keterkaitan spasial atau interaksi antar zona serta untuk menguji signifikansinya secara statistik. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa perilaku komuter dari para pekerja tidak stabil secara spasial. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan satu parameter global untuk memperkirakan perjalanan di masa mendatang tidaklah tepat. Perubahan preferensi komuter dengan bis kearah memaksimalkan jarak telah mengakibatkan peningkatan jarak perjalanan dan kendaraan-kilometer. Statistik spasial memperlihatkan bahwa terjadi interaksi positif untuk perjalanan kerja dengan menggunakan bus.


Commuting preferences; Bus; Spatial association.

Full Text:



Anselin, L., 1995, Local Indicators of Spatial Association - LISA, Geographical Analysis, 27, pp. 93-115.

Black, J., Paez, A. and Suthanaya, P., 2001, Spatial Targets for Sustainable Transport: Some Examples from International Practice. Sydney: Institution of Engineers Australia.

Black, J. and Suthanaya, P., 2002, VKT Generated by Local Government Areas, Sydney, 1961-1996, and Projections to 2011. Canberra: 25th Australian Transport Research Forum (ATRF), 2-4 October.

Black, J., Paez, A. and Suthanaya, P., 2002, Sustainable Urban Transportation: Performance Indicators and Some Analytical Approaches.

American Society of Civil Engineers. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Special Issue: Advances in Urban Planning Methodologies I: Recent Advances, Vol. 128, No.4, pp. 184-209.

Balcombe, R., Mackett, R., Paully, N., Preston, J., Shires, J., and Titheridge, H., 2004, The Demand for Public Transport: A Practical Guide. TRL Report, TRL593.

Bamberg, S., Schmidt, P., 1998, Changing Travel Mode Choice as Rational Choice: Results from A Longitudinal Intervention Study. Rationality and Society, 10, pp. 223-252.

BIC, 2003, Towards More Sustainable Cities: Building a Public Transport Culture Submission by the Bus Industry Confederation to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Environment

and Heritage’s Inquiry into Sustainable Cities 2025.

Cliff, A.D. and Ord, J.K., 1969, The Problem of Spatial Autocorrelation. In A.J. Scott (ed.), Studies in Regional Science, pp. 25-55. London: London Papers in Regional Science, Volume 1. Pion.

Currie, G., 2006, Bus Rapid Transit in Australasia: Performance, Lessons Learned and Futures. Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 1–22.

Dahl, R., 2005, Heavy Traffic Ahead. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, pp. 239–245.

Desalvo, J., Huq, M., 1996, Income, Residential Location and Mode Choice. Journal of Urban Economics, 40, pp. 84-99.

Fleming, D., Faber, M., Pund, G., Turner, P., 2001, Public Transport Solutions for Low Density Cities: The Australian Experience. UITP 54th World Congress.

Hamilton, B.A., 2006, Study of Successful Congestion Management Approaches and the Role of Charging, Taxes, Levies and Infrastructure and Service Pricing in Travel Demand Management. Council of Australian Governments.

Harris, R. and Bloomfield, A., 1997, The Impact of Industrial Decentralization on the Gendered Journey to Work, 1900-1940. Economic Geography, 73, pp. 94-117.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Lisensi Creative Commons

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License