Risk Assessment and Fractionation of Cadmium Contamination in Sediment of Saguling Lake in West Java Indonesia


  • Dwina Roosmini Institut Teknologi Bandung, Environmental Management Technology Research Group, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Eka Wardhani Environmental Engineering Department Faculty of Civil and Planning Engineering, Institut Teknologi Nasional, Bandung, Jalan P.H.H. Mustofa 23, Bandung 40124, Indonesia
  • Suprihanto Notodarmojo Water and Wastewater Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia




cadmium, risk assessment, Saguling Lake, sediment, speciation


This research focused on the speciation and distribution patterns of cadmium in surface sediment from Saguling Lake, which is located in the Upper Citarum River. Organic compounds and heavy metals from anthropogenic activities in the watershed have contaminated the river. Sample from the upper layer of the sediment from Saguling Lake were taken from 12 locations, representing the dry and the rainy seasons in the period 2015-2018. Sediment cadmium (Cd) classification was conducted through a sequential extraction technique to determine Cd?s bioavailability and its risk to the water environment. During the rainy season, the total Cd concentration in the upper layer of the sediment was higher than during the dry season. The average dry and rainy season concentrations were 11.12 2.16mg/kg and 14.82 1.48mg/kgm in the sampling locations, distributed differently with the following order of the largest to the smallest concentration: 10B > 1A > 4 > 3 > 2 > 1B > 10A > 7 > 9 > 5 > 6 > 8 for the dry season, and 4 > 1A > 1B > 2 > 7 > 5 > 9 > 3 > 6 > 10A > 8 > 10B for the rainy season. All sampling locations (>60%) showed Cd in the resistant fraction, indicating no significant anthropogenic input of Cd into the surface sediment but more geological input due to high erosion. The values of RAC, ICF, and GFC indicate that the Cd in the surface sediment can be categorized as low risk.


Download data is not yet available.


Roosmini, D., Anggraini, O., Salami, I.R.S. & Resmiani, Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in Liposarcus pardalis as Biomonitoring for Electroplating Industry, 7th South East Asian Technical University Consortium (SEATUC) Symposium. Bandung: ITB, pp. 1-5, 2013.

Septiono, M.A. & Roosmini, D., Heavy Metal Distribution in Water, Sediment and Fish at Upper Citarum River and Its Potential Exposure Pathway to Human, The 5th Environmental Technology and Management Conference, Bandung, ETMC-ITB, pp 1-10, 2015.

Roosmini, D., Sururi, M.R. & Notodarmojo, S., The Characteristic of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) of water from Cikapundung River Pond, Earth and Environmental Science. I.O.P. Publishing, 2018.

Sururi, M.R., Notodarmojo, S. & Roosmini, D., Aquatic Organic Matter Characteristic and THMFP Occurrence in a Tropical River, International Journal of GEOMATE, 17(62), pp. 203-2011, 2019.

Zhang, J.S., Lee, B.G., Luoma, S.N., Choi, H.J., Koh, C.H. & Brown, C.L., Influence of Acid Volatile Sulfides and Metal Concentrations on Metal Partitioning in Contaminated Sediments, Environmental Science Technology, 34(4511), pp. 270-281, 2014.

Kaya, G. & Turkoglu, S., Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Various Tissues of Some Fish Species and Green Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) from ?skenderun Bay, Turkey, and Risk Assessment for Human Health, Biological Trace Element Research, 180(2), pp. 314-326, 2017.

Siegel, B. Z. & Siegel, S.M., Hawaiian Volcanoes and the Biogeology of Mercury, Volcanism in Hawaii, 1, pp. 882-839, 1987.

Symonds, R.B., Rose, W.I., Reed, M.H., Lichte, F.E. & Finnegan, D.L., Volatilization, Transport and Sublimation of Metallic and Non-Metallic Elements in High-Temperature Gases at Merapi Volcano, Indonesia, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51(8), pp. 2083-2101, 1987.

Ochieng, E., Lalah, J. & Wandiga, S., Analysis of Heavy Metals in Water and Surface Sediment in Five Rift Valley Lakes in Kenya for Assessment of Recent Increase In Anthropogenic Activities, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, pp. 570-576, 2007.

Kutlu, B., Dissemination of Heavy-Metal Contamination in Surface Sediments of the Uzuny?r Dam Lake, Tunceli, Turkey, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 24(8), pp.2182-2194, 2018.

Yuan, Chun-gang, Shi, J., He, B., Liu, J., Liang, L. & Jiang, G., Speciation of Heavy metals in Marine Sediments from the East China Sea by ICP-MS with sequential extraction, Environmental International, 30, pp. 769-783, 2004.

Naji A, Ismail, A. & Ismail, A.R., Chemical Speciation and Contamination Assessment of Zn and Cd by Sequential Extraction in Surface Sediment of Klang River, Malaysia, Microchemical Journal, 95(2), pp. 285-292, 2010.

Tessier, A., Campbell, P.G.C. & Bisson, M., Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Speciation of Particulate Trace Metal, Analytical Chemical, 51, pp. 844-851, 1979.

Leleyter, L. & Probst, J.L., A New Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Speciation of Particulate Trace Elements in River Sediments, International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 73(2), pp. 109-128, February, 1999.

Zhao, S., Feng, C., Yang, Y., Niu, J. & Shen, Z., Risk Assessment of Sedimentary Metals in the Yangtze Estuary: New Evidence of the Relationships Between Two Typical Index Methods, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 241(242), pp. 164-172, 2012

Sundaray, S.K., Nayak, B.B., Lin, S. & Bhatta, D., Geochemical Speciation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the River Estuarine Sediments ? A Case Study: Mahanadi Basin, India, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186, pp. 1837-1846, 2011.

Satya, A., Sulawesty, F., Harimawan, A. & Setiadi, Tj., Correlation of Aquatic Parameters to the Cadmium Bioaccumulation Capability onto Microalgae Biomass in an Urban Lake, Journal of Water Sustainability, 8(2), June, pp. 59-72, 2018.

Satya, A., Sulawesty, F., Yustiawati, & Widiyanto, T., Cadmium Distribution in Water, Microalgae Biomass, and Sediment of River Bonan Dolok, Samosir-North Sumatra, Indonesia, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 535(1), 012028, 2020.

Wardhani, E., Notodarmojo, S. & Roosmini, D., Stream Sedimment Geochemical Survey od Selected Element in Catchment Area of Saguling Lake, Matec Web of Conferences, 147, 08003, 2018.

Wangsaatmaja, S., The Impact of Land Use Change on Water Flow Regimes and Environmental Health, PhD Disertation, Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, 2004. (Text in Indonesian, Abstract in English)

Bermejo, J.C.S., Beltr, R. & Ariza, J.L.G., Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals Contamination in Sediments from Odiel River (Southwest Spain), Environment International, 29(1), pp. 69-77, 2003.

Simpson, L., Batley, G.E. & Chariton, A.A., Revision of the ANZECC/ARMCANZ Sediment Quality Guidelines, CSIRO Land and Water Science Report 08/7. CSIRO Land and Water, 2013.

West Java Province Environmental Protection Agency, Water Quality Monitoring, West Java Province, Bandung, 2018.

Marselina, M., Jatikusuma, I. & Arwin, S., The Conservation Index as a Control Instrument of Space Utilization in the Upper Cikapundung Watershed of Indonesia, International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology, 10(2), pp. 148, 2020.

Siriporn, P., Pattarathomronga, M.S. & Panutrakul, S., Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead Concentrations in Sediment and Biota from Songkhla Lake: A Review, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 91, pp. 573-580, 2013.

Becket, V.V., Pascual, C.B., Kwan, C. & Becket, R., Levels and Distribution of Trace Metals in Sediments of Laguna Lake (Philippines) and its Tributary Rivers, International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 45(2), pp. 101-116,1991.

Arain, M.B., Kazi, T.G., Jamali, M.K., Jalbani, N., Afridi, H.I. & Shah, A., Total Dissolved and Bioavailable Elements in Water and Sediment Samples and Their Accumulation in Oreochromis mossambicus of Polluted Manchar Lake, Chemosphere, 70, pp. 1845-1856, 2008.

Jiang Fu, Hu, X., Tao, X., Yu, H. & Zhang, X., Risk and Toxicity Assessments of Heavy Metals in Sediments and Fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China, 93(9), pp. 1887-1895, 2013.

Bo, L., Wang, D., Zhang, G. & Wang, C., Heavy Metal Speciation in Sediments and the Associated Ecological Risks in Rural Rivers in Southern Jiangsu Province, China, China Soil and Sediment Contamination, 24, pp. 90-102, 2015.

Forghani, G., Moore, F., Lee, S. & Qishlaqi, A., Geochemistry and Speciation of Metals in Sediments of the Maharlu Saline Lake, Shiraz, S W Iran, Environmental Earth Science, 59(1), pp. 173-184, 2009.

Yin, H., Gao, Y. & Fan, C., Distribution, Sources and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from Lake Taihu, China, Environmental Research Letters, 6(4), 044012, 2011.

Kastatrovik, V., Jacimovic, Z., Bigovid, M., Djurovic, D. & Krivokapic, S., Environmental Status and Geochemical Assessment Sediments of Lake Skadar, Montenegro, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188(449), pp. 1-15, 2016.

Liu, E., Shen, J., Yang, L., Zhang, E., Meng, X. & Wang, J., Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in the Sediments of Nansihu Lake Catchment, China, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 161(1-4): pp. 217-227, 2010.

Aiju, L., Yanchun, G., Honghai, W. & Gao Peiling, G., An Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Xiaofu River Sediments through Chemical Speciation Study, International Journal of Earth Sciences, 5(5), pp. 1235-1240, 2012.




How to Cite

Roosmini, D., Wardhani, E., & Notodarmojo, S. (2022). Risk Assessment and Fractionation of Cadmium Contamination in Sediment of Saguling Lake in West Java Indonesia. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 54(2), 220203. https://doi.org/10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2022.54.2.3